Figure 1 | International Journal of Obesity

Figure 1

From: The ‘obesity paradox’ may not be a paradox at all

Figure 1

Causal diagram depicting the relationship between obesity, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and mortality. Obesity is a known risk factor for RCC and RCC is associated with mortality. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of RCC and mortality. In this diagram, RCC is a collider (indicated by the black box) and conditioning on RCC through adjustment, stratification or restriction will induce collider stratification bias.

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