Morning and afternoon appetite and gut hormone responses to meal and stress challenges in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder

Abstract

Background:

Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress.

Method:

Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) binge eating disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast. For each protocol, they first received a standardized liquid meal (0900/1600 hours), then a stress test (Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 1110/1810 hours), and then a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal (1140/1840 hours) while rating appetite and stress and having blood drawn for hormone measures.

Results:

Appetite at baseline was greater in the PM than in the AM condition (higher hunger, lower fullness). Following the liquid meal, area under the curve (AUC) values for hunger and ghrelin were greater and AUC values for peptide YY lower in the PM than in the AM condition. Only those with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition, as well as a pattern of higher initial PM and lower initial AM ghrelin. Following the stress test, cortisol and ghrelin increased in both the AM and PM conditions, but higher ghrelin AUC and lower cortisol AUC were observed in the PM condition. Again, only participants with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition. Buffet meal intake was similar across groups and conditions but those with BED reported greater loss of control and binge resemblance than those without.

Conclusions:

Afternoon/evening may be a high-risk period for overeating, particularly when paired with stress exposure, and for those with binge eating.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4

References

  1. 1

    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL . Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012; 307: 491–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Wang JB, Patterson RE, Ang A, Emond JA, Shetty N, Arab L . Timing of energy intake during the day is associated with the risk of obesity in adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 2): 255–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    de Castro JM . The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr 2004; 134: 104–111.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Arble DM, Bass J, Laposky AD, Vitaterna MH, Turek FW . Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 2100–2102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Schiavo-Cardozo D, Lima MM, Pareja JC, Geloneze B . Appetite-regulating hormones from the upper gut: disrupted control of xenin and ghrelin in night workers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013; 79: 807–811.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Morris CJ, Aeschbach D, Scheer FA . Circadian system, sleep and endocrinology. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012; 349: 91–104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Turek FW . Circadian rhythms. Horm Res 1998; 49: 109–113.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Arble DM CG, Vitaterna MH, Van Cauter E, Turek FW Circadian rhythms in neuroendocrine systems. In: Fink G, Pfaff D., Levine J. (ed.). Handbook of Neuroendocrinology, 11th edn. Academic Press/Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Boston, MA, USA, 2012. pp 271–297.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Boden G, Ruiz J, Urbain JL, Chen X . Evidence for a circadian rhythm of insulin secretion. Am J Physiol 1996; 271 (Pt 1): E246–E252.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Van Cauter E, Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Polonsky KS . Circadian modulation of glucose and insulin responses to meals: relationship to cortisol rhythm. Am J Physiol 1992; 262 (Pt 1): E467–E475.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Sinha MK, Ohannesian JP, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW, Magosin S et al. Nocturnal rise of leptin in lean, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 1344–1347.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Birketvedt GS, Geliebter A, Kristiansen I, Firgenschau Y, Goll R, Florholmen JR . Diurnal secretion of ghrelin, growth hormone, insulin binding proteins, and prolactin in normal weight and overweight subjects with and without the night eating syndrome. Appetite 2012; 59: 688–692.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Galindo Munoz JS, Jimenez Rodriguez D, Hernandez Morante JJ . Diurnal rhythms of plasma GLP-1 levels in normal and overweight/obese subjects: lack of effect of weight loss. J Physiol Biochem 2015; 71: 17–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Hill BR, De Souza MJ, Williams NI . Characterization of the diurnal rhythm of peptide YY and its association with energy balance parameters in normal-weight premenopausal women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011; 301: E409–E415.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Elliott RM, Morgan LM, Tredger JA, Deacon S, Wright J, Marks V . Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in response to nutrient ingestion in man: acute post-prandial and 24-h secretion patterns. J Endocrinol 1993; 138: 159–166.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Elimam A, Marcus C . Meal timing, fasting and glucocorticoids interplay in serum leptin concentrations and diurnal profile. Eur J Endocrinol 2002; 147: 181–188.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    de Zwaan M, Mitchell JE, Raymond NC, Spitzer RL . Binge eating disorder: clinical features and treatment of a new diagnosis. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1994; 1: 310–325.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Spitzer R, Yanovski S, Wadden T, Wing R, Marcus MD, Stunkard A et al. Binge eating disorder: its further validation in a multisite study. Int J Eat Disord 1993; 13: 17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Raymond NC, Neumeyer B, Warren CS, Lee SS, Peterson CB . Energy intake patterns in obese women with binge eating disorder. Obes Res 2003; 11: 869–879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Grilo CM, Masheb RM . Night-time eating in men and women with binge eating disorder. Behav Res Ther 2004; 42: 397–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Anderson DA, Williamson DA, Johnson WG, Grieve CO . Validity of test meals for determining binge eating. Eat Behav 2001; 2: 105–112.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Raymond NC, Bartholome LT, Lee SS, Peterson RE, Raatz SK . A comparison of energy intake and food selection during laboratory binge eating episodes in obese women with and without a binge eating disorder diagnosis. Int J Eat Disord 2007; 40: 67–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Sysko R, Devlin MJ, Walsh BT, Zimmerli E, Kissileff HR . Satiety and test meal intake among women with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2007; 40: 554–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Walsh BT, Boudreau G . Laboratory studies of binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2003; 34 Suppl: S30–S38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Yanovski SZ, Leet M, Yanovski JA, Flood M, Gold PW, Kissileff HR et al. Food selection and intake of obese women with binge-eating disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: 975–980.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Geliebter A, Yahav EK, Gluck ME, Hashim SA . Gastric capacity, test meal intake, and appetitive hormones in binge eating disorder. Physiol Behav 2004; 81: 735–740.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Troisi A, Di Lorenzo G, Lega I, Tesauro M, Bertoli A, Leo R et al. Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones. Neuroendocrinology 2005; 81: 259–266.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Monteleone P, Martiadis V, Fabrazzo M, Serritella C, Maj M . Ghrelin and leptin responses to food ingestion in bulimia nervosa: implications for binge-eating and compensatory behaviours. Psychol Med 2003; 33: 1387–1394.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Kojima S, Nakahara T, Nagai N, Muranaga T, Tanaka M, Yasuhara D et al. Altered ghrelin and peptide YY responses to meals in bulimia nervosa. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005; 62: 74–78.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Munsch S, Biedert E, Meyer AH, Herpertz S, Beglinger C . CCK, ghrelin, and PYY responses in individuals with binge eating disorder before and after a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Physiol Behav 2009; 97: 14–20.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Geliebter A, Hashim SA, Gluck ME . Appetite-related gut peptides, ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 in obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Physiol Behav 2008; 94: 696–699.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Rosmond R, Bjorntorp P . The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity as a predictor of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke. J Intern Med 2000; 247: 188–197.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Bjorntorp P . Abdominal fat distribution and disease: an overview of epidemiological data. Ann Med 1992; 24: 4.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Fraser R, Ingram MC, Anderson NH, Morrison C, Davies E, Connell JM . Cortisol effects on body mass, blood pressure, and cholesterol in the general population. Hypertension 1999; 33: 1364–1368.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Dallman MF, Akana SF, Strack AM, Hanson ES, Sebastian RJ . The neural network that regulates energy balance in response to glucocorticoids and insulin and also regulates HPA asix responsivity at a site proximal to CRF neurons. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995; 771: 13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Bjorntorp P, Rosmond R . Neuroendocrine abnormalities in visceral obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24 (Suppl 2): 6.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Epel E, McEwen B, Seeman T, Matthews K, Castellazzo G, Brownell K et al. Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Psychosom Med 2000; 62: 10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Marin P, Darin N, Amemiya T, Andersson B, Jern S, Bjorntorp P . Cortisol secretion in relation to body fat distribution in obese premenopausal women. Metabolism 1992; 41: 5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Castonguay T . Glucocorticoids as modulators in the control of feeding. Brain Res Bull 1991; 27: 6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Jagust W, Harvey D, Mungas D, Hann M . Central obesity and the aging brain. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 4.

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Tataranni P, Larson D, Snitker S, Young J, Flatt J, Ravussin E . Effects of glucocorticoids on energy metabolism and food intake in humans. Am J Physiol 1996; 271 (Pt 1): 9.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Epel E, Lapidus R, McEwen B, Brownell K . Stress may add bite to appetitie in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior. Psychoneuroendocrimology 2001; 26: 13.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Dallman MF . Moments in time—the neonatal rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 1590–1592.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Tsigos C, Chrousos GP . Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53: 865–871.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Wilhelm I, Born J, Kudielka BM, Schlotz W, Wust S . Is the cortisol awakening rise a response to awakening? Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007; 32: 358–366.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Wetherell MA, Lovell B, Smith MA . The effects of an anticipated challenge on diurnal cortisol secretion. Stress 2015; 18: 42–48.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    Rybkin II, Zhou Y, Volaufova J, Smagin GN, Ryan DH, Harris RB . Effect of restraint stress on food intake and body weight is determined by time of day. Am J Physiol 1997; 273 (Pt 2): R1612–R1622.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    Bradbury MJ, Cascio CS, Scribner KA, Dallman MF . Stress-induced adrenocorticotropin secretion: diurnal responses and decreases during stress in the evening are not dependent on corticosterone. Endocrinology 1991; 128: 680–688.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    Gluck ME . Stress response and binge eating disorder. Appetite 2006; 46: 26–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    Pike KM, Wilfley D, Hilbert A, Fairburn CG, Dohm FA, Striegel-Moore RH . Antecedent life events of binge-eating disorder. Psychiatry Res 2006; 142: 19–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    Crowther JH, Sanftner J, Bonifazi DZ, Shepherd KL . The role of daily hassles in binge eating. Int J Eat Disord 2001; 29: 449–454.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    von Baeyer C, Piira T, Chambers C, Trapanotto M, Zeltzer L . Guidelines for the cold pressor task as an experimental pain stimulus for use with children. J Pain 2005; 6: 10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53

    Hines E, GE B. A standard stimulus for measuring vasomotor reactions: its application in the study of hypertension. Proceedings of the Staff Meeting of Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic: University of Michigan, USA. 1932; pp 332–335.

  54. 54

    Kelly C, Cooper S . Plasma norepinephrine response to a cold pressor test in asubtypes of depressive illness. Pyschiatry Res 1998; 81: 12.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55

    Gluck M, Geliebter A, Hung J, Yahav E . Cortisol, hunger, and desire to binge eat following a cold stress test in obese women with binge eating disorder. Psychosom Med 2004; 66: 6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56

    Schwabe L, Haddad L, Schachinger H . HPA axis activation by a socially evaluated cold-pressor test. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008; 33: 890–895.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57

    Maier SU, Makwana AB, Hare TA . Acute stress impairs self-control in goal-directed choice by altering multiple functional connections within the brain's decision circuits. Neuron 2015; 87: 621–631.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58

    Gluck ME, Yahav E, Hashim SA, Geliebter A . Ghrelin levels after a cold pressor stress test in obese women with binge eating disorder. Psychosom Med 2014; 76: 74–79.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59

    Geliebter A, Yahav EK, Gluck ME, Hashim SA . Gastric capacity, test meal intake, and appetitive hormones in binge eating disorder. Physiol Behav 2004; 81: 735–740.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60

    Liu J, Prudom CE, Nass R, Pezzoli SS, Oliveri MC, Johnson ML et al. Novel ghrelin assays provide evidence for independent regulation of ghrelin acylation and secretion in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 1980–1987.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61

    Orskov C, Rabenhoj L, Wettergren A, Kofod H, Holst JJ . Tissue and plasma concentrations of amidated and glycine-extended glucagon-like peptide I in humans. Diabetes 1994; 43: 535–539.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62

    Geliebter A, Gluck ME, Hashim SA . Plasma ghrelin concentrations are lower in binge-eating disorder. J Nutr 2005; 135: 1326–1330.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted at the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center at St Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, with the support of funding from NIDDK (R01DK074046, PI: AG; K99DK088360, PI: SC) and additional support for SC from NIH grants K99 R00DK088360 (PI: SC) and U54HD070725. We thank Kushi Ranganath for help in reviewing the literature.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S Carnell.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on International Journal of Obesity website

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Carnell, S., Grillot, C., Ungredda, T. et al. Morning and afternoon appetite and gut hormone responses to meal and stress challenges in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder. Int J Obes 42, 841–849 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.307

Download citation

Further reading