The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown.
To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting.
Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30–70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months.
Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (P<0.05) after multivariate adjustments including dietary intervention groups and baseline body weight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was −3.87±0.9 vs −5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and −4.09±0.9 vs −5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6–24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05).
In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.
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We thank the participants in the trial for their dedication and contribution to the research. This research was supported by NIH grants ES022981, ES021372, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (HL073286), and the General Clinical Research Center, National Institutes of Health (RR-02635). Qi Sun was supported by a career development award, R00-HL098459, from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Gang Liu was supported by the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program 2015 by the Office of China Postdoctoral Council.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on International Journal of Obesity website
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Liu, G., Liang, L., Bray, G. et al. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial. Int J Obes 41, 878–886 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.28
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