Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training.
We examined ‘mediators’ to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level.
Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) <3.0 after intervention) and NRs (no changes or values HOMA-IR⩾3.0 after intervention). The primary outcome was HOMA-IR associated with their mediators; second, the training-induced changes to glucose control parameters; and third the report of R and NR to improve body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic and performance variables.
Mediation analysis revealed that improvements (decreases) in abdominal fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=−0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β′=−0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity.
The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more the effects of the improvements in glucose control of IR schoolchildren in R group after 6 weeks of RT or HIT, showing both regimes similar effects on body composition or muscular strength independent of interindividual metabolic response variability.
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We acknowledge Mr. Johnattan Cano for his assistance throughout the exercise program, in particular for his help in all pre- and post-exercise tests, as well as to Andrea Vallejos, Javiera Jaramillo, Fernando Garrido and Gabriel Bilbao for his professional assistance in the measurements. This work was supported by funding partially from the Family Healthcare Center Tomás Rojas of Los Lagos, awarding to CA as part of his annual work in the health promotion, program and additionally by the Universidad de Los Lagos by the scientific collaboration in this study. The content of this paper reflects the author’s views alone and the Chilean Community or the Family Healthcare Center Tomás Rojas is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein. The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Clinical trial web-page available in: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03003754?term=NCT03003754&rank=1.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Álvarez, C., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Ramírez-Vélez, R. et al. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance. Int J Obes 42, 79–87 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.177
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