Original Article | Published:

Clinical Studies and Practice

Effect of low-glycemic-sugar-sweetened beverages on glucose metabolism and macronutrient oxidation in healthy men

International Journal of Obesity volume 40, pages 990997 (2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

Background/Objectives:

Sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSB) provide high amounts of rapidly absorbable sugar and have been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and promote weight gain. We hypothesized that when compared with high-glycemic index (GI) SSB low-GI SSB lead to lower insulin secretion and thus an improved preservation of insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation during an inactive phase.

Subjects/Methods:

In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention 13 healthy men (age: 23.7±2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6±1.9 kg m2) consumed low-GI (isomaltulose) or high-GI (75% maltodextrin+25% sucrose, adapted for sweetness) SSBs providing 20% of energy requirement for 7 days. During this phase, participant's habitual high physical activity (11 375±3124 steps per day) was reduced (2363±900 steps per day). The provided ad libitum diet comprised 55% CHO, 30% fat and 15% protein. Glycemic and insulinemic responses were assessed: Day-long (7-day continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, 24-h-urinary c-peptide excretion), during meal test (37 g isomaltulose vs 28 g maltodextrin+9g sucrose) and measures of insulin sensitivity (basal: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), postprandial: Matsuda-ISI). Macronutrient oxidation was assessed by non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ) in the fasted state (npRQfasting) and postprandial as the area under the npRQ-curve during meal test (npRQtAUC-meal).

Results:

Day-long glycemia was lower with low-GI compared with high-GI SSB (−5%, P<0.05). Low-GI SSB led to lower insulin secretion during meal test (−28%, P<0.01) and throughout the day (−31%, P<0.01), whereas postprandial glucose levels did not differ between low-GI and high-GI SSBs. Insulin sensitivity deteriorated on inactivity with both SSBs, but was better preserved with low-GI isomaltulose compared with high-GI maltodextrin–sucrose (ΔHOMA-IR: +0.37±0.52 vs +0.85±0.86; ΔMatsuda-ISI: −5.1±5.5 vs −9.6±5.1, both P<0.05). Both, fasting and postprandial fat oxidation declined on inactivity, with no difference between high-GI and low-GI SSBs.

Conclusions:

Compared with high-GI SSB, 7-day consumption of beverages sweetened with low-GI isomaltulose had beneficial effects on inactivity-induced impairment of glucose metabolism without effecting fuel selection.

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Acknowledgements

This study was funded by budgetary resources of the University Hohenheim. Isomaltulose (Palatinose) was kindly provided by Beneo GmbH (Mannheim, Germany) free of charge.

Author contributions

AB-W, JKh and JKr designed the research; JKh, JKr, HS-B and NB performed the research; JKh, JKr and A-BW analyzed the data; AB-W and JKh discussion of data; JKh and A-BW wrote the paper; JKh and AB-W had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Affiliations

  1. Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany

    • J Kahlhöfer
    • , J Karschin
    • , H Silberhorn-Bühler
    • , N Breusing
    •  & A Bosy-Westphal

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to A Bosy-Westphal.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2016.25

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