Table 3 Changes in glucose metabolism due to inactivity stratified by low-GI and high-GI SSB

From: Effect of low-glycemic-sugar-sweetened beverages on glucose metabolism and macronutrient oxidation in healthy men

  Low-GI High-GI Difference between changes due to inactivity a Difference between inactivity periods b
  Activity Inactivity Δinactivity−activity Activity Inactivity Δinactivity−activity   
Glucose metabolism
 CGMtAUC (mg dl−1 × 24 h) 2379±172 2339±178 −41±194 2278±103 2450±136 171±160** <0.01 0.04
 24-h c-peptide (μg per day) 40.6±20.7 45.0±15.1 4.4±15.1 41.7±18.3 64.8±24.3 23.1±22.5** <0.05 <0.01
 Glucosefasting (mmol l−1) 3.90±0.99 4.14±0.74 0.24±0.72 3.96±1.13 4.21±0.97 0.25±0.47 NS NS
 Insulinfasting (mU l−1) 4.75±2.31 5.95±2.45 1.20±2.06 5.17±2.12 7.10±3.30 1.93±1.80** NS 0.04
 HOMA-IR 0.82±0.42 1.19±0.67 0.37±0.52* 0.70±0.45 1.55±1.20 0.85±0.86** 0.04 NS
 Matsuda-ISI 14.5±5.9 9.4±3.4 −5.1±5.5** 17.5±8.0 7.8±3.6 -9.6±5.1*** <0.01 NS
 GlucosetAUC-meal (mmol l−1 per 3h) 13.3±3.0 12.5±3.0 −0.8±2.5 12.6±3.0 11.9±3.4 -0.7±1.5 NS NS
 InsulintAUC-meal (mU l−1 per 3h) 31.4±7.0 38.6±9.6 7.2±8.1** 43.2±9.8 53.7±18.9 10.5±15.0* NS <0.01
Macronutrient oxidation
 npRQfasting 0.78±0.04 0.84±0.05 0.06±0.04*** 0.77±0.04 0.84±0.05 0.07±0.05** NS NS
 npRQtAUC-meal (per 3h) 2.49±0.14 2.64±0.16 0.15±0.10*** 2.41±0.11 2.67±0.18 0.26±0.11*** <0.01 NS
  1. Abbreviations: CGM, continuous glucose measurement; NS, not significant; tAUC, total area under the curve; HOMAIR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; MatsudaISI, Matsuda insulin sensitivity index; npRQtAUC-meal, area under the npRQ-curve during meal test (37 g isomaltulose versus 28 g maltodextrin+9 g sucrose).
  2. Changes upon inactivity (Δinactive−active), paired t-test, *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.
  3. aDifference between changes due to inactivity with low-GI and high-GI SSB, paired t-test.
  4. bDifference between low-GI and high-GI intervention after 1 week of physical inactivity, paired t-test.