Lobstein T, Jackson-Leach R. Estimated burden of paediatric obesity and co-morbidities in Europe. Part 2. Numbers of children with indicators of obesity-related disease. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006; 1: 33–41.
Pietrobelli A, Espinoza MC, De Cristofaro P. Childhood obesity: looking into the future. Angiology 2008; 59 (2 Suppl): 30S–33S.
Park MH, Falconer C, Viner RM, Kinra S. The impact of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2012; 13: 985–1000.
Kalarchian MA, Marcus MD. Psychiatric comorbidity of childhood obesity. Int Rev Psychiatry 2012; 24: 241–246.
Reilly JJ, Kelly J. Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35: 891–898.
Karnehed N, Rasmussen F, Hemmingsson T, Tynelius P. Obesity and attained education: cohort study of more than 700,000 Swedish men. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14: 1421–1428.
Cawley J, Spiess CK. Obesity and skill attainment in early childhood. Econ Hum Biol 2008; 6: 388–397.
Shrewsbury V, Wardle J. Socioeconomic status and adiposity in childhood: a systematic review of cross-sectional studies 1990-2005. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 275–284.
Ness AR, Leary S, Reilly J, Wells J, Tobias J, Clark E et al. The social patterning of fat and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006; 1: 59–61.
Magnusson MB, Sjoberg A, Kjellgren KI, Lissner L. Childhood obesity and prevention in different socio-economic contexts. Prev Med 2011; 53: 402–407.
Birch LL, Davison KK. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001; 48: 893–907.
Loth K, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Clin Pract 2014; 11: 207–220.
Neumark-Sztainer D, MacLehose R, Loth K, Fulkerson JA, Eisenberg ME, Berge J. What's for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics. Public Health Nutr 2014; 17: 145–155.
Wijtzes AI, Bouthoorn SH, Jansen W, Franco OH, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW et al. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2014; 11: 96.
Reilly JJ. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention. Proc Nutr Soc 2008; 67: 317–325.
Stein D, Weinberger-Litman SL, Latzer Y. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity. Front Public Health 2014; 2: 104.
Bammann K, Peplies J, De Henauw S, Hunsberger M, Molnar D, Moreno LA et al. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e86914.
Goisis A, Sacker A, Kelly Y. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study. Eur J Public Health 2015; 26: 7–13.
Bammann K, Gwozdz W, Lanfer A, Barba G, De Henauw S, Eiben G et al. Socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight in Europe: results from the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Pediatr Obes 2013; 8: 1–12.
Ahrens W, Bammann K, Siani A, Buchecker K, De Henauw S, Iacoviello L et al. The IDEFICS cohort: design, characteristics and participation in the baseline survey. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35 (Suppl 1): S3–S15.
Bammann K, Peplies J, Sjöström M, Lissner L, De Henauw S, Galli C et al. Assessment of diet. physical activity and biological, social and environmental factors in a multi-centre European project on diet- and lifestyle-related disorders in children (IDEFICS). J Public Health 2006; 14: 279–289.
Development OOfEC-oaGrowing Unequal? Income distribution and poverty in OECD countries. Development OOfEC-oa: Paris, 2008.
UNESCO United Nations Educational SaCOIfSISCED 1997. International Standard Classification of Education. UNESCO United Nations Educational SaCOIfS: Montreal, 2006.
Harrison E, Rose D. The European Socioeconomic Classification (ESeC). User guide. University of Essex: Colchester, 2006.
Baughcum AE, Powers SW, Johnson SB, Chamberlin LA, Deeks CM, Jain A et al. Maternal feeding practices and beliefs and their relationships to overweight in early childhood. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2001; 22: 391–408.
Goodman R. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1997; 38: 581–586.
Goldberg GR, Black AE, Jebb SA, Cole TJ, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA et al. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991; 45: 569–581.
Bornhorst C, Huybrechts I, Ahrens W, Eiben G, Michels N, Pala V et al. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls. Br J Nutr 2013; 109: 1257–1265.
Bornhorst C, Bel-Serrat S, Pigeot I, Huybrechts I, Ottavaere C, Sioen I et al. Validity of 24-h recalls in (pre-)school aged children: comparison of proxy-reported energy intakes with measured energy expenditure. Clin Nutr 2014; 33: 79–84.
Burdette HL, Whitaker RC, Daniels SR. Parental report of outdoor playtime as a measure of physical activity in preschool-aged children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 353–357.
Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci 2008; 26: 1557–1565.
Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1240–1243.
Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, Jackson AA. Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 2007; 335: 194.
Greenland S. Modeling and variable selection in epidemiologic analysis. Am J Public Health 1989; 79: 340–349.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. Wiley: New York, 1989.
Semmler C, Ashcroft J, van Jaarsveld CH, Carnell S, Wardle J. Development of overweight in children in relation to parental weight and socioeconomic status. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 814–820.
Vollmer RL, Mobley AR. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review. Appetite 2013; 71: 232–241.
Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Peterson K, Tatone-Tokuda F. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: a longitudinal study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2007; 4: 9.
Musher-Eizenman DR, de Lauzon-Guillain B, Holub SC, Leporc E, Charles MA. Child and parent characteristics related to parental feeding practices. A cross-cultural examination in the US and France. Appetite 2009; 52: 89–95.
Olsen NJ, Pedersen J, Handel MN, Stougaard M, Mortensen EL, Heitmann BL. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e78974.
Sawyer MG, Miller-Lewis L, Guy S, Wake M, Canterford L, Carlin JB. Is there a relationship between overweight and obesity and mental health problems in 4- to 5-year-old Australian children? Ambul Pediatr 2006; 6: 306–311.
Sawyer MG, Harchak T, Wake M, Lynch J. Four-year prospective study of BMI and mental health problems in young children. Pediatrics 2011; 128: 677–684.
Fulton JE, Dai S, Steffen LM, Grunbaum JA, Shah SM, Labarthe DR. Physical activity, energy intake, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in youth. Am J Prevent Med 2009; 37 (1 Suppl): S40–S49.
Ness AR, Leary SD, Mattocks C, Blair SN, Reilly JJ, Wells J et al. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children. PLoS Med 2007; 4: e97.
Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Griew P, Cooper A. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 2012; 307: 704–712.
Carson V, Rinaldi RL, Torrance B, Maximova K, Ball GD, Majumdar SR et al. Vigorous physical activity and longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. Int J Obes (Lond) 2014; 38: 16–21.
Riddoch CJ, Leary SD, Ness AR, Blair SN, Deere K, Mattocks C et al. Prospective associations between objective measures of physical activity and fat mass in 12-14 year old children: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). BMJ 2009; 339: b4544.
Hjorth P, Davidsen AS, Kilian R, Skrubbeltrang C. A systematic review of controlled interventions to reduce overweight and obesity in people with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2014; 130: 279–289.
Mitchell JA, Mattocks C, Ness AR, Leary SD, Pate RR, Dowda M et al. Sedentary behavior and obesity in a large cohort of children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 1596–1602.
De Henauw S, Verbestel V, Marild S, Barba G, Bammann K, Eiben G et al. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe? Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35 Suppl 1: S16–S23.
Hense S, Pohlabeln H, Michels N, Marild S, Lissner L, Kovacs E et al. Determinants of attrition to follow-up in a multicentre cohort study in children. Results from the IDEFICS study. Epidemiol Res Int 2013; 2013: 936365.
Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40: 1337–1345.
Jackson C, Henriksen L, Foshee VA. The Authoritative Parenting Index: predicting health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. Health Educ Behav 1998; 25: 319–337.
Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Rittenberry L, Cosart C, Hebert D, de Moor C. Child-reported family and peer influences on fruit, juice and vegetable consumption: reliability and validity of measures. Health Educ Res 2001; 16: 187–200.
Bornhorst C, Bel-Serrat S, Pigeot I, Huybrechts I, Ottavaere C, Sioen I et al. Validity of 24-h recalls in (pre-)school aged children: comparison of proxy-reported energy intakes with measured energy expenditure. Clin Nutr 2013; 33: 79–84.
Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment 2nd edn Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2005.
Stomfai S, Ahrens W, Bammann K, Kovacs E, Marild S, Michels N et al. Intra- and inter-observer reliability in anthropometric measurements in children. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35 (Suppl 1): S45–S51.
Ojiambo R, Konstabel K, Veidebaum T, Reilly J, Verbestel V, Huybrechts I et al. Validity of hip-mounted uniaxial accelerometry with heart-rate monitoring vs. triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of free-living energy expenditure in young children: the IDEFICS Validation Study. J Appl Physiol 2012; 113: 1530–1536.
Viswanath K. Public communications and its role in reducing and eliminating health disparities. In: Thomson GE (ed), Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business. National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
Pena MM, Dixon B, Taveras EM. Are you talking to ME? The importance of ethnicity and culture in childhood obesity prevention and management. Child Obes 2012; 8: 23–27.
Marmot M, Bell R, Goldblatt P. Action on the social determinants of health. Revue d'epidemiologie et de sante publique 2013; 61 (Suppl 3): S127–S132.