Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding

Article metrics

Abstract

Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1

References

  1. 1

    Ibáñez L, Ong K, Dunger DB, de Zegher F . Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 2153–2158.

  2. 2

    Hales CN, Barker DJP, Clark PMS, Cox LJ, Fall C, Osmond C et al. Foetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ 1991; 303: 1019–1022.

  3. 3

    Whincup PH, Kaye SJ, Owen CG, Huxley R, Cook DG, Anazawa S et al. Birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA 2008; 300: 2886–2897.

  4. 4

    Schou JH, Pilgaard K, Vilsbøll T, Jensen CB, Deacon CF, Holst JJ et al. Normal secretion and action of the gut incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in young men with low birth weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 4912–4919.

  5. 5

    Vaag A . Low birth weight and early weight gain in the metabolic syndrome: consequences for infant nutrition. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009; 104: S32–S34.

  6. 6

    Secher A, Jelsing J, Baquero AF, Hecksher-Sørensen J, Cowley MA, Dalbøge LS et al. The arcuate nucleus mediates GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide-dependent weight loss. J Clin Invest 2014; 124: 4473–4488.

  7. 7

    Beiroa D, Imbernon M, Gallego R, Senra A, Herranz D, Villarroya F et al. GLP-1 agonism stimulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning through hypothalamic AMPK. Diabetes 2014; 63: 3346–3358.

  8. 8

    Steculorum SM, Collden G, Coupe B, Croizier S, Lockie S, Andrews ZB et al. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits. J Clin Invest 2015; 125: 846–858.

  9. 9

    Tong J, D'Alessio D . Ghrelin and hypothalamic development: too little and too much of a good thing. J Clin Invest 2015; 125: 490–492.

  10. 10

    de Zegher F, Sebastiani G, Diaz M, Sánchez-Infantes D, Lopez-Bermejo A, Ibáñez L . Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding. Diabetes 2012; 61: 1969–1973.

  11. 11

    Padidela R, Patterson M, Sharief N, Ghatei M, Hussain K . Elevated basal and post-feed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations in the neonatal period. Eur J Endocrinol 2009; 160: 53–58.

  12. 12

    de Zegher F, Sebastiani G, Diaz M, Gómez-Roig MD, López-Bermejo A, Ibáñez L . Breast-feeding vs formula-feeding for infants born small-for-gestational-age: divergent effects on fat mass and on circulating IGF-I and high-molecular-weight adiponectin in late infancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98: 1242–1247.

  13. 13

    Hwang I, Park YJ, Kim YR, Kim YN, Ka S, Lee HY et al. Alteration of gut microbiota by vancomycin and bacitracin improves insulin resistance via glucagon-like peptide 1 in diet-induced obesity. FASEB J 2015; 29: 2397–2411.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This Study was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, by The Fondo Europeo de desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Madrid, Spain (PI11/0443) and by the research Foundation Sant Joan de Déu (AFR 00020). MD and LI are clinical investigators of CIBERDEM (www.ciberdem.org). JB is an investigator of the Miguel Servet Fund from Carlos III National Institute of Health, Spain. AL-B is an investigator of the 13 Fund for Scientific research (Ministry of Education and Science, Spain). FdZ is a clinical investigator supported by the Clinical Research Council of the University Hospital Leuven.

Author contributions

MD contributed to the study design and researched data; JB and SG researched data; AL-B contributed to discussion; LI contributed to the study design; FdZ contributed to the study design and wrote the manuscript. All the authors reviewed/edited the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to L Ibáñez.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on International Journal of Obesity website

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Further reading