The effect of 4βHWE on the NF-κB signaling pathway after upregulation by TNF-α (10 ng ml−1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Panel a shows the time course of intracellular signal transduction with or without 10 μM 4βHWE in adipocytes. Panel b shows intranuclear NF-κB in adipocytes after 30 min of TNF-α stimulation with or without 10 μM 4bHWE. Panel c shows the effect of 10 μM 4βHWE on NF-κB transcriptional activity. The effect of 5 μM 4βHWE on the mRNA expression of MCP-1 (d), TNF-α (e), and IL-6 (f) in adipocytes stimulated by TNF-α is shown. Values are presented as the mean±s.e.m. of three well determinations. In panel c, *** represents P<0.001 and indicates statistically significant differences when compared with the value obtained in the stimulated condition without 4βHWE, as identified through a one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s test. In panels d–f, ** represents P<0.01 and *** represents P<0.001; these asterisks indicate statistically significant differences relative to the treatment, as identified through a two-way ANOVA.