Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97: 505–516.
Johnstone AM. Safety and efficacy of high-protein diets for weight loss. Proc Nutr Soc 2012; 71: 339–349.
Santesso N, Akl EA, Bianchi M, Mente A, Mustafa R, Heels-Ansdell D et al. Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012; 66: 780–788.
Clifton PM, Condo D, Keogh JB. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets - a systematic review and meta analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2013; 24: 224–235.
Russell WR, Gratz SW, Duncan SH, Holtrop G, Ince J, Scobbie L et al. High-protein, reduced-carbohydrate weight-loss diets promote metabolite profiles likely to be detrimental to colonic health. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93: 1062–1072.
Sjöström L. Review of the key results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) trial - a prospective controlled intervention study of bariatric surgery. J Intern Med 2013; 273: 219–234.
Sjöström L, Peltonen M, Jacobson P, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Wedel H et al. Bariatric surgery and long-term cardiovascular events. JAMA 2012; 307: 56–65.
Elia M. Effect of starvation and very low calorie diets on protein-energy interrelationships in lean and obese subjects. In: Scrimshaw N, Schurch B (eds) Protein-Energy Interactions. International Dietary Energy Consultancy Group, Proceedings of an IDECG workshop. Nestle Foundation: Lausanne, 1991; 249–284.
McCance RA, Widdowson EM. Calorie Deficiencies and Protein Deficiencies. Churchill: London, UK, 1951.
Polivy J, Zeitlin SB, Herman C, Peter B, Lynne C. Food restriction and binge eating: A study of former prisoners of war. J Ab Psych 1994; 103: 409–411.
Polivy P. Psychological Consequences of Food Restriction. J Am Diet Ass 1996; 96: 589–592.
Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen O, Taylor HL. The Biology of Human Starvation. The University of Minnesota Press, North Central Publishing: Minneapolis, MN, USA, 1950.
Gharbi M, Akrout M, Zouari B. Food intake during and outside Ramadan. East Mediterr Health J 2003; 9: 131–140.
Beltaifa L, Bouguerra R, Ben Slama C, Jabrane H, El-Khadhi A, Ben Rayana MC et al. Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan. East Mediterr Health J 2002; 8: 603–611.
Finch GM, Day JE, Razak, Welch DA, Rogers PJ. Appetite changes under free-living conditions during Ramadan fasting. Appetite 1998; 31: 159–170.
Stuart WK, Flemming LW. Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days duration. Postgrad Med J 1973; 49: 203–209.
Benedict FG. Chemical and Physiological Studies of a Man Fasting Thirtyone Days. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1915; 1: 228–231.
Bloom WL. Fasting as an introduction to the treatment of obesity. Metabolism 1959; 8: 214–220.
Duncan GG, Jenson WK, Fraser RI, Cristofori FC. Correction and control of intractable obesity. Practicable application of intermittent periods of total fasting. JAMA 1962; 181: 309–312.
Drenick EJ, Swendsoid BWH, Tuttle SG. Prolonged starvation as treatment for severe obesity. JAMA 1964; 187: 140.
Cahill GF Jr.. Starvation in man. N Engl J Med 1970; 282: 668–675.
Wadden TA, Stunkard AJ, Brownell KD. Very low calorie diets: their efficacy, safety, and future. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 675–684.
Silverstone JT, Stark JE, Buckle RM. Hunger during total starvation. Lancet 1966; 1: 1343–1344.
Bolinger RE, Lukert BP, Brown RW, Guevara L, Steinberg R. Metabolic balance of obese subjects during fasting. Arch Intern Med 1966; 118: 3–8.
Lappalainen R, Sjödén PO, Hursti T, Vesa V. Hunger/craving responses and reactivity to food stimuli during fasting and dieting. Int J Obes 1990; 14: 679–688.
French SA, Jeffery RW, Murray D. Is dieting good for you?: Prevalence, duration and associated weight and behaviour changes for specific weight loss strategies over four years in US adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23: 320–327.
Johnstone AM, Faber P, Gibney ER, Elia M, Horgan G, Golden BE et al. Effect of an acute fast on energy compensation and feeding behaviour in lean men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 1623–1628.
Halberg N, Henriksen M, Söderhamn N, Stallknecht B, Ploug T, Schjerling P et al. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2005; 99: 2128–2136.
Heilbronn LK, Smith SR, Martin CK, Anton SD, Ravussin E. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 69–73.
Varady KA, Bhutani S, Church EC, Klempel MC. Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 1138–1143.
Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Varady KA. Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet. Metabolism 2013; 62: 137–143.
Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Varady KA. Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. Obesity 2013; 21: 1370–1379.
Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Haus JM et al. Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 2013; 12: 146.
Johnstone AM. Fasting - the ultimate diet? Obes Rev 2007; 8: 211–222.
Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A. Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 2169–2180.
Hursting SD, Nunez NP, Varticovski L, Vinson C. The obesity-cancer link: lessons learned from a fatless mouse. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 2391–2393.
Ahima RS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obesity 2006; 14: S242–S249.
Gredilla R, Barja G. Minireview: the role of oxidative stress in relation to caloric restriction and longevity. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 3713–3717.
Rondinone CM. Adipocyte-derived hormones, cytokines, and mediators. Endocrine 2006; 29: 81–90.
Fontana L, Klein S. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction. JAMA 2007; 297: 986–994.
Hursting SD, Lavigne JA, Berrigan D, Perkins SN, Barrett JC. Calorie restriction, aging, and cancer prevention: mechanisms of action and applicability to humans. Annu Rev Med 2003; 54: 131–152.
Varady KA, Hellerstein MK. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention :a review of human and animal trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 7–13.
Varady KA, Roohk DJ, Hellerstein MK. Dose effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on in vivo cell proliferation and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 547–551.
Varady KA, Roohk DJ, Loe YC, McEvoy-Hein BK, Hellerstein MK. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism and plasma adiponectin levels in mice. J Lipid Res 2007; 48: 2212–2219.
Klempel MC, Bhutani S, Fitzgibbon M, Freels S, Varady KA. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss. Nutr J 2010; 9: 35.
Descamps O, Riondel J, Ducros V, Roussel AM. Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and incidence of age-associated lymphoma in OF1 mice: effect of alternate-day fasting. Mech Ageing Dev 2005; 126: 1185–1191.
Kirkwood TL, Kapahi P, Shanley DP. Evolution, stress, and longevity. J Anat 2000; 197: 587–590.
Varady KA, Hellerstein MK. Do calorie restriction or alternate-day fasting regimens modulate adipose tissue physiology in a way that reduces chronic disease risk? Nutr Rev 2008; 66: 333–342.
McCaffree J. What you should know about calorie restriction. J Am Dietet Assoc 2004; 104: 1524–1525.
Le Bourg E, Rattan SI. Can dietary restriction increase longevity in all species, particularly in human beings? Introduction to a debate among experts. Biogerontol 2006; 7: 123–125.
Johnson JB, Laub DR, John S. The effect on health of alternate day calorie restriction; Eating less and more than needed on alternate days prolongs life. Med Hypotheses 2006; 67: 209–211.
Villareal DT, Fontana L, Weiss EP, Racette SB, Steger-May K, Schechtman K et al. 'Bone mineral density response to caloric restriction-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss: a randomized controlled trial". Arch Int Med 2006; 166: 2502–2510.
Rizza W, Veronese N, Fontana L. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity? Ageing Res Rev 2014; 13C: 38–45.