Poston L. Gestational weight gain: influences on the long-term health of the child. Current Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012; 15: 252–257.
Budge H, Gnanalingham MG, Gardner DS, Mostyn A, Stephenson T, Symonds ME. Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: long-term consequences for later obesity. Birth Defects Res Embryo Today Rev 2005; 75: 193–199.
Roseboom T, de Rooij S, Painter R. The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health. Early Hum Dev 2006; 82: 485–491.
Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, Sattar N, Brion MJ, Benfield L et al. Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood. Circulation 2010; 121: 2557–2564.
Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington (DC)National Academies Press (US), 2009.
Lawlor DA, Lichtenstein P, Fraser A, Langstrom N. Does maternal weight gain in pregnancy have long-term effects on offspring adiposity? A sibling study in a prospective cohort of 146,894 men from 136,050 families. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94: 142–148.
Margerison-Zilko CE, Shrimali BP, Eskenazi B, Lahiff M, Lindquist AR, Abrams BF. Trimester of maternal gestational weight gain and offspring body weight at birth and age five. Matern Child Health J 2012; 16: 1215–1223.
Laitinen J, Jaaskelainen A, Hartikainen AL, Sovio U, Vaarasmaki M, Pouta A et al. Maternal weight gain during the first half of pregnancy and offspring obesity at 16 years: a prospective cohort study. BJOG 2012; 119: 716–723.
Jaddoe VW, van Duijn CM, Franco OH, van der Heijden AJ, van Iizendoorn MH, de Jongste JC et al. The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2012. Eur J Epidemiol 2012; 27: 739–756.
Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1240–1243.
Helba M, Binkovitz LA. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pediatr Radiol 2009; 39: 647–656.
Suzuki R, Watanabe S, Hirai Y, Akiyama K, Nishide T, Matsushima Y et al. Abdominal wall fat index, estimated by ultrasonography, for assessment of the ratio of visceral fat to subcutaneous fat in the abdomen. Am J Med 1993; 95: 309–314.
Wong SN, Tz Sung RY, Leung LC. Validation of three oscillometric blood pressure devices against auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometer in children. Blood Press Monit 2006; 11: 281–291.
Steinberger J, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Hayman L, Lustig RH, McCrindle B et al. Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation 2009; 119: 628–647.
Coolman M, de Groot CJ, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Raat H, Steegers EA. Medical record validation of maternally reported history of preeclampsia. J Clin Epidemiol 2010; 63: 932–937.
Verburg BO, Steegers EA, De Ridder M, Snijders RJ, Smith E, Hofman A et al. New charts for ultrasound dating of pregnancy and assessment of fetal growth: longitudinal data from a population-based cohort study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 31: 388–396.
Niklasson A, Ericson A, Fryer JG, Karlberg J, Lawrence C, Karlberg P. An update of the Swedish reference standards for weight, length and head circumference at birth for given gestational age (1977-1981). Acta Paediatr Scand 1991; 80: 756–762.
Keijzer-Veen MG, Euser AM, van Montfoort N, Dekker FW, Vandenbroucke JP, Van Houwelingen HC. A regression model with unexplained residuals was preferred in the analysis of the fetal origins of adult diseases hypothesis. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 1320–1324.
Jones A, Charakida M, Falaschetti E, Hingorani AD, Finer N, Masi S et al. Adipose and height growth through childhood and blood pressure status in a large prospective cohort study. Hypertension 2012; 59: 919–925.
Sterne JA, White IR, Carlin JB, Spratt M, Royston P, Kenward MG et al. Multiple imputation for missing data in epidemiological and clinical research: potential and pitfalls. BMJ 2009; 338: b2393.
Bansal S, Buring JE, Rifai N, Mora S, Sacks FM, Ridker PM. Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women. JAMA 2007; 298: 309–316.
Sarwar N, Sattar N, Gudnason V, Danesh J. Circulating concentrations of insulin markers and coronary heart disease: a quantitative review of 19 Western prospective studies. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 2491–2497.
Ay L, Kruithof CJ, Bakker R, Steegers EA, Witteman JC, Moll HA et al. Maternal anthropometrics are associated with fetal size in different periods of pregnancy and at birth. The Generation R Study. BJOG 2009; 116: 953–963.
Gaillard R, Durmus B, Hofman A, Mackenbach JP, Steegers EA, Jaddoe VW. Risk factors and outcomes of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Obesity 2013; 21: 1046–1055.
Crozier SR, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Harvey NC, Cole ZA et al. Weight gain in pregnancy and childhood body composition: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1745–1751.
Hochner H, Friedlander Y, Calderon-Margalit R, Meiner V, Sagy Y, Avgil-Tsadok M et al. Associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with adult offspring cardiometabolic risk factors: the Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study. Circulation 2012; 125: 1381–1389.
Hull HR, Thornton JC, Ji Y, Paley C, Rosenn B, Mathews P et al. Higher infant body fat with excessive gestational weight gain in overweight women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 205: 211 e1–211 e7.
Mamun AA, O'Callaghan M, Callaway L, Williams G, Najman J, Lawlor DA. Associations of gestational weight gain with offspring body mass index and blood pressure at 21 years of age: evidence from a birth cohort study. Circulation 2009; 119: 1720–1727.
Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Field AE, Frazier AL, Gillman MW. Maternal gestational weight gain and offspring weight in adolescence. Obstetr Gynecol 2008; 112: 999–1006.
Reynolds RM, Osmond C, Phillips DI, Godfrey KM. Maternal BMI, parity, and pregnancy weight gain: influences on offspring adiposity in young adulthood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 5365–5369.
Wrotniak BH, Shults J, Butts S, Stettler N. Gestational weight gain and risk of overweight in the offspring at age 7 y in a multicenter, multiethnic cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 1818–1824.
Fox CS, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, Pou KM, Maurovich-Horvat P, Liu CY et al. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2007; 116: 39–48.
Tybor DJ, Lichtenstein AH, Dallal GE, Daniels SR, Must A. Independent effects of age related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93: 392–401.
Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze MB, Overvad K et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. New Engl J Med 2008; 359: 2105–2120.
Gaillard R, Steegers EA, Duijts L, Felix JF, Hofman A, Franco OH, Jaddoe VW. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study. Hypertension 2014; 63: 683–691.
Ehrenthal DB, Maiden K, Rao A, West DW, Gidding SS, Bartoshesky L et al. Independent relation of maternal prenatal factors to early childhood obesity in the offspring. Obstetr Gynecol 2013; 121: 115–121.
Geelhoed JJ, Fraser A, Tilling K, Benfield L, Davey Smith G, Sattar N, Nelson SM, Lawlor DA. Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are associated with childhood blood pressure independently of family adiposity measures: the avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Circulation 2010; 122: 1192–1199.
Patel S, Fraser A, Davey Smith G, Lindsay RS, Sattar N, Nelson SM, Lawlor DA. Associations of gestational diabetes, existing diabetes, and glycosuria with offspring obesity and cardiometabolic outcomes. Diabetes care 2012; 35: 63–71.
Deierlein AL, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Adair LS, Daniels JL. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years. Pediatr Obes 2012; 7: 134–142.
Yu ZB, Han SP, Zhu GZ, Zhu C, Wang XJ, Cao XG, Guo XR. Birth weight and subsequent risk of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 525–542.
Chen X, Wang Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation 2008; 117: 3171–3180.
Juhola J, Magnussen CG, Viikari JS, Kahonen M, Hutri-Kahonen N, Jula A et al. Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Pediatr 2011; 159: 584–590.
Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, Burns TL, Sabin MA et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. New Engl J Med 2011; 365: 1876–1885.
Franks PW, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Sievers ML, Bennett PH, Looker HC. Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. New Engl J Med 2010; 362: 485–493.
Taylor PD, Poston L. Developmental programming of obesity in mammals. Exp Physiol 2007; 92: 287–298.