Original Article | Published:

Influence of the tolerability of vinegar as an oral source of short-chain fatty acids on appetite control and food intake

International Journal of Obesity volume 38, pages 675681 (2014) | Download Citation

Abstract

Background:

Vinegar is promoted as a natural appetite suppressant, based on previous reports that vinegar ingestion significantly increases subsequent satiety. However there are concerns about the appropriateness and safety of this advice, and it is unclear if poor product palatability may explain previously published effects on appetite.

Objective:

To investigate if vinegar palatability and tolerability have a role in suppressing appetite and food intake in two sequential and related acute human feeding studies.

Subjects and methods:

Healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters were recruited to Study 1 (n=16), an acute feeding study supplying vinegar within both palatable and unpalatable drinks alongside a mixed breakfast in comparison to a non-vinegar control; and to Study 2 (n=14), a modified sham feeding study (taste only without ingestion) comparing vinegar to a non-vinegar control following a milkshake preload. Both studies were a randomized crossover balanced design for the assessment of appetite, energy intake and glycaemic response.

Results:

In Study 1, ingestion of vinegar significantly reduced quantitative and subjective measures of appetite, which were accompanied by significantly higher nausea ratings, with unpalatable treatment having the greatest effect. Significant correlations between palatability ratings and appetite measures were found. In Study 2, orosensory stimulation with vinegar did not influence subsequent subjective or quantitative measures of appetite compared with control.

Conclusions:

These studies indicate that vinegar ingestion enhances satiety whereas orosensory stimulation alone does not, and that these effects are largely due to poor tolerability following ingestion invoking feelings of nausea. On this basis the promotion of vinegar as a natural appetite suppressant does not seem appropriate.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , , , , , . The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects. Nutr J 2008; 7: 12–20.

  2. 2.

    , , , . Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 983–988.

  3. 3.

    , , . Additive postprandial blood glucose-attenuating and satiety-enhancing effect of cinnamon and acetic acid. Nutr Res 2009; 29: 723–727.

  4. 4.

    , , , , . Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009; 73: 1837–1843.

  5. 5.

    , , . Do SCFA have a role in appetite regulation? Proc Nut Soc 2011; 70: 119–128.

  6. 6.

    , , , , . Management of healthy eating in everyday life among senior Europeans. Appetite 2010; 55: 616–622.

  7. 7.

    , , , . Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105: 1141–1144.

  8. 8.

    . Corrosive oesophageal injury following vinegar ingestion. Hong Kong Med J 2002; 8: 365–366.

  9. 9.

    , , , . Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar. Nephron 1998; 80: 242–243.

  10. 10.

    , , . Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2012; 119: 589–591.

  11. 11.

    , , , . Natural therapies—when ignorance is not bliss!!. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1892–1893.

  12. 12.

    , , . A preliminary evaluation of the safety and tolerance of medicinally ingested vinegar in individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Med Food 2008; 11: 179–183.

  13. 13.

    , , , , , . Roles of short-chain fatty acids receptors, GPR41 and GPR43 on colonic functions. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59: 251–262.

  14. 14.

    , , , , , et al. Expression of short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR41 in the human colon. Biomed Res 2009; 30: 149–156.

  15. 15.

    , , , , , et al. Expression of the short-chain fatty acid receptor, GPR43, in the human colon. J Mol Histol 2008; 39: 135–142.

  16. 16.

    , , , , , et al. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 11312–11319.

  17. 17.

    , , . Palatability affects satiation but not satiety. Physiol Behav 1999; 66: 681–688.

  18. 18.

    , . Effects of changes in palatability on food intake and the cumulative food intake curve in man. Appetite 1986; 7: 85–96.

  19. 19.

    . The role of palatability in control of human appetite: implications for understanding and treating obesity. In Appetite and Body Weight: Integrative systems and the development of anti-obesity drugs Chapter 10. Elsevier Ltd.: Burlington, MA, 2007. pp 247–269.

  20. 20.

    , , , . Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 38–48.

  21. 21.

    , , , , , et al. Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood-glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49: 242–247.

  22. 22.

    , . Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycaemia. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105: 1939–1942.

  23. 23.

    , . Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52: 368–371.

  24. 24.

    , . Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycaemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64: 886–893.

  25. 25.

    , , , . Glycaemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: 743–752.

  26. 26.

    , , . Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 281–282.

  27. 27.

    , , , , . Cephalic phase of insulin secretion and food stimulation in humans: a new perspective. Am J Physiol 1985; 249: E639–E645.

  28. 28.

    , , . Spontaneous insulin fluctuations and the preabsorptive insulin response to food ingestion in humans. Physiol Behav 1987; 40: 631–636.

  29. 29.

    , . Oral sensory stimulation improves glucose tolerance in humans: effects on insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: R1371–R1379.

  30. 30.

    , , , . Impact of bitter taste on gastric motility. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 17: 961–965.

  31. 31.

    , , , . The stomach’s response to unappetizing food: cephalic-vagal effects on gastric myoelectric activity. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2001; 13: 151–154.

  32. 32.

    , , , . Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. Int J Eat Disord 1986; 5: 295–315.

  33. 33.

    , . Effects of the amylose content of breakfast and lunch on postprandial variables in male volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 58: 180–186.

  34. 34.

    , , . Acute ingestion of resistant starch reduces food intake in healthy adults. Br J Nutr 2010; 103: 917–922.

  35. 35.

    , . Nutrients and behaviour: research strategies for the investigation of taste characteristics, food preferences, hunger sensations and eating patterns in man. J Psychiatr Res 1982; 17: 203–212.

  36. 36.

    , , . Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012; 66: 789–794.

  37. 37.

    . A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand J Statist 1979; 6: 65–70.

  38. 38.

    , . Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. Appetite 2005; 37: 242–245.

  39. 39.

    , , , , , et al. Meal palatability, substrate oxidation and blood glucose in young and older men. Physiol Behav 2001; 72: 5–12.

  40. 40.

    , . Role of palatability on meal-induced thermogensis in human subjects. Am J Physiol 1985; 248: E333–E336.

  41. 41.

    , , , , . Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009; 297: R632–R639.

  42. 42.

    , , , . Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol 2007; 20: 46–51.

  43. 43.

    , , , , , et al. Measurements of the gastric emptying rate by use of ultrasonography: studies in humans using bread with added sodium propionate. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 254–258.

  44. 44.

    , , , , . The effects of fiber enrichment of pasta and fat content on gastric emptying, GLP-1, glucose, and insulin responses to a meal. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: 293–298.

  45. 45.

    , , , , , . Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD). Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012; 12: 456–463.

  46. 46.

    , , , , , et al. Clinical features of idiopathic gastroparesis vary with sex, body mass, symptom onset, delay in gastric emptying, and gastroparesis severity. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 101–115.

  47. 47.

    , , . Taste signaling elements expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells regulate nutrient-responsive secretion of gut hormones. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 822S–825S.

  48. 48.

    , , , , , et al. Expression of taste molecules in the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans with and without type 2 diabetes. Gut 2009; 58: 337–346.

  49. 49.

    , , , . Hormones in the naso-oropharynx: endocrine modulation of taste and smell. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2009; 20: 163–179.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the volunteers who participated in the study and also to Chloe Cooke, Leanne Johnson, Vicky Martins and Jennifer Pickard for their assistance in conducting the studies. JD was supported by an educational fellowship from Premier Foods.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

    • J Darzi
    • , R Montaser
    • , J Yap
    •  & M D Robertson
  2. Nutrition and Dietetics Research Group, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK

    • G S Frost

Authors

  1. Search for J Darzi in:

  2. Search for G S Frost in:

  3. Search for R Montaser in:

  4. Search for J Yap in:

  5. Search for M D Robertson in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J Darzi.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2013.157