Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Intentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Objective:

Obesity is related to increased risk of several health complications, including depression. Many studies have reported improvements in mood with weight loss, but results have been equivocal. The present meta-analysis examined changes in symptoms of depression that were reported in trials of weight loss interventions. Between-groups comparisons of different weight loss methods (for example, lifestyle modification, diet-alone and pharmacotherapy) were examined, as were within-group changes for each treatment type.

Method:

MEDLINE was searched for articles published between 1950 and January 2009. Several obesity-related terms were intersected with terms related to depression. Results were filtered to return only studies of human subjects, published in English. Of 5971 articles, 394 were randomized controlled trials. Articles were excluded if they did not report mean changes in weight or symptoms of depression, included children or persons with psychiatric disorders (other than depression), or provided insufficient data for analysis. Thirty-one studies (n=7937) were included. Two authors independently extracted a description of each study treatment, sample characteristics, assessment methods and changes in weight and symptoms of depression. Treatments were categorized as lifestyle modification, non-dieting, dietary counseling, diet-alone, exercise-alone, pharmacotherapy, placebo or control interventions.

Results:

Random effects models found that lifestyle modification was superior to control and non-dieting interventions for reducing symptoms of depression, and marginally better than dietary counseling and exercise-alone programs. Exercise-alone programs were superior to controls. No differences were found for comparisons of pharmacologic agents and placebos. Within-group analyses found significant reductions in symptoms of depression for nearly all active interventions. A meta-regression found no relationship between changes in weight and changes in symptoms of depression in lifestyle modification interventions.

Conclusions:

On average, obese individuals in weight loss trials experienced reductions in symptoms of depression. Future studies should examine incidence and resolution of clinically significant depressive disorders with weight loss interventions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

References

  1. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR . Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA 2010; 303: 235–241.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults--the evidence report. Obes Res 1998; 6 (Suppl 2): 51S–209S.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, Gail MH . Impact of smoking and preexisting illness on estimates of the fractions of deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in the US population. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 975–982.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, Miglioretti DL, Crane PK, van Belle G et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 824–830.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Petry NM, Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Wagner JA . Overweight and obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med 2008; 70: 288–297.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Mather AA, Cox BJ, Enn MW, Sareen J . Associations of obesity with psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors in a nationally representative sample. J Psychosom Res 2009; 66: 277–285.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Goodman E, Whitaker RC . A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 497–504.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook J, Coplan JD . Psychiatric symptoms in adolescence as predictors of obesity in early adulthood: a longitudinal study. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 1303–1310.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Pine DS, Goldstein RB, Wolk S, Weissman MM . The association between childhood depression and adulthood body mass index. Pediatrics 2001; 107: 1049–1056.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Anderson SE, Cohen P, Naumova EN, Must A . Association of depression and anxiety disorders with weight change in a prospective community-based study of children followed up into adulthood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160: 285–291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Stice E, Presnell K, Shaw H, Rohde P . Psychological and behavioral risk factors for obesity onset in adolescent girls: a prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005; 73: 195–202.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Murphy JM, Horton NJ, Burke Jr JD, Monson RR, Laird NM, Lesage A et al. Obesity and weight gain in relation to depression: findings from the Stirling County Study. Int J Obes 2009; 33: 335–341.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Herva A, Laitinen J, Miettunen J, Veijola J, Karvonen JT, Läksy K et al. Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study. Int J Obes 2006; 30: 520–527.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Roberts RE, Deleger S, Strawbridge WJ, Kaplan GA . Prospective association between obesity and depression: evidence from the Alameda County Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 514–521.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Carpenter KM, Hasin DS, Allison DB, Faith MS . Relationships between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: results from a general population study. Am J Public Health 2000; 90: 251–257.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Heo M, Pietrobelli A, Fontaine KR, Sirey JA, Faith MS . Depressive mood and obesity in US adults: comparison and moderation by sex, age, and race. Int J Obes 2006; 30: 513–519.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Petry NM . Gender differences in associations between body mass index and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Ann Epidemiol 2008; 18: 458–466.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Byrne KJ . Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control. Obes Res 2004; 12 (Suppl): 151S–162S.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Goldstein DJ . Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16: 397–415.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Look AHEAD Research Group. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 1374–1383.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Diabetes Prevention Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Klein S, Burke LE, Bray GA, Blair S, Allison DB, Pi-Sunyer X et al. Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: a statement for professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 2004; 110: 2952–2967.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Cash TF . Self-help for a negative body image: a comparison of components of a cognitive-behavioral program. Behav Ther 2002; 33: 235–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Vogt RA . Body image in obese women before, during, and after weight loss treatment. Health Psychol 1997; 16: 226–229.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Ackermann RT, Edelstein SL, Venkat Narayan KM, Zhang P, Engelgau M, Herman WH et al. Changes in health state utilities with changes in body mass in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Obesity 2009; 17: 2176–2181.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Kaukua J, Pekkarinen T, Sane T, Mustajoki P . Sex hormones and sexual function in obese men losing weight. Obes Res 2003; 11: 689–694.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Kolotkin RL, Crosby RD, Williams GR, Hartley GG, Nicol S . The relationship between health-related quality of life and weight loss. Obes Res 2001; 9: 564–571.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Kolotkin RL, Norquist SM, Crosby RD, Suryawanshi S, Teixeira PJ, Heymsfield SB et al. One-year health-related quality of life outcomes in weight loss trial participants: comparison of three measures. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2009; 7: 53.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Faulconbridge LF, Wadden TA, Rubin RA, Walkup AP, Fabricatore AN, Coday M et al. One-year changes in weight and symptoms of depression in depressed vs non-depressed individuals in the Look AHEAD study. Obesity 2009; 17 (Suppl 2): 576.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Keys A . Biology of Human Starvation. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN, 1950.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  31. Stunkard AJ . The dieting depression; incidence and clinical characteristics of untoward responses to weight reduction regimens. Am J Med 1957; 23: 77–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. US Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee. FDA Briefing Document: Zimulti (Rimonabant) Tablets, 20 mg. FDA: Rockville, MD, 2007. Available at http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/AC/07/briefing/2007-4306b1-00-index.htm (accessed 12 January 2010).

  33. Christensen R, Kristensen KP, Bartels EM, Bliddal H, Astrup A . Efficacy and safety of the weight-loss drug rimonabant: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2007; 370: 1706–1713.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Department of Health and Human Service, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Memorandum. November 2006 Overview for December 13 Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC). Appendix 2: Request to Sponsors—Advice for the pharmaceutical industry in exploring their placebo-controlled clinical trials databases for suicidality and preparing data sets for analysis by FDA. Available at http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/briefing/2006-4272b1-01-FDA.pdf (accessed 24 August 2009).

  35. Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Bartlett SJ, Zemel B, Verde TJ, Franckowiak SC . Effects of lifestyle activity vs structured aerobic exercise in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999; 281: 335–340.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Annesi JJ, Unruh JL . Relations of exercise, self-appraisal, mood changes and weight loss in obese women: testing propositions based on Baker and Brownell's model. Am J Med Sci 2008; 335: 198–204.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Bacon L, Keim NL, Van Loan MD, Derricote M, Gale B, Kazakz A et al. Evaluating a ‘non-diet’ wellness intervention for improvements of metabolic fitness, psychological well-being and eating and activity behaviors. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 854–865.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Cabioglu MT, Ergene N, Tan U . Electroacupuncture treatment of obesity with psychological symptoms. Int J Neurosci 2007; 117: 579–590.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Carels RA, Darby LA, Caccapaglia HM, Douglass OM . Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women through a lifestyle change intervention. J Women's Health 2004; 13: 412–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Dennis KE, Pane KW, Adams BK, Qi BB . The impact of a shipboard weight control program. Obes Res 1999; 7: 60–67.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Evangelista LS, Doering LV, Lennie T, Moser DK, Hamilton MA, Fonarow GC . Usefulness of a home-based exercise program for overweight and obese patients with advanced heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97: 886–890.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Faulconbridge LF, Wadden TF, Berkowitz RI, Sarwer DB, Womble LG, Hesson LA et al. Changes in symptoms of depression with weight loss: results of a randomized trial. Obesity 2009; 17: 1009–1016.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Fontaine KR, Barofsky I, Anderson RE, Bartlett SJ, Wiersema L, Cheskin LJ et al. Impact of weight loss on health-related quality of life. Qual Life Res 1999; 8: 275–277.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Galletly C, Moran L, Noakes M, Clifton P, Tomlinson L, Norman R . Psychological benefits of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome—a pilot study. Appetite 2007; 49: 590–593.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Hainer V, Kunesova M, Bellisle F, Hill M, Braunerova R, Wagenknecht M . Psychobehavioral and nutritional predictors of weight loss in obese women treated with sibutramine. Int J Obes 2005; 29: 208–216.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Halyburton AK, Brinkworth GD, Wilson CJ, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Keogh JB et al. Low- and high-carbohydrate weight loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 580–587.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Kerr J, Patrick K, Norman G, Stein MB, Calfas K, Zabinski M et al. Randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention for overweight women: impact on depressive symptoms. Depress Anxiety 2008; 25: 555–558.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Kiortsis DN, Tsouli S, Filippatos TD, Konitsiotis S, Elisaf MS . Effects of sibutramine and orlistat on mood in obese and overweight subjects: a randomised study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18: 207–210.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Klem ML, Wing RR, Simkin-Silverman L, Kuller LH . The psychological consequences of weight gain prevention in healthy, premenopausal women. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 21: 167–174.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Melanson KJ, Dell’Olio J, Carpenter MR, Angelopoulous TJ . Changes in multiple health outcomes at 12 and 34 weeks resulting from 12 weeks of exercise counseling with or without dietary counseling in obese adults. Nutrition 2004; 20: 849–856.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Nieman DC, Custer WF, Butterworth DE, Utter AC, Henson DA . Psychological response to exercise training and/or energy restriction in obese women. J Psychosom Res 2000; 48: 23–29.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Pi-Sunyer XF, Aronne LJ, Heshmati HM, Devin J, Rosenstock J . Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients RIO-North America: a randomized controlled Trial. JAMA 2006; 295: 761–775.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Rapoport L, Clark M, Wardle J . Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 1726–1737.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Sarsan A, Ardic F, Ozgen M, Topuz O, Sermez Y . The effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in obese women. Clin Rehabil 2006; 20: 773–782.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Sbrocco T, Nedegaard RC, Stone JM, Lewis EL . Behavioral choice treatment promotes continuing weight loss: preliminary results of a cognitive-behavioral decision-based treatment for obesity. J Consul Clin Psychol 1999; 67: 260–266.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Scheen AJ, Finer N, Hollander P, Jensen MD, Van Gaal LF . Efficacy and tolerability of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled study. Lancet 2006; 368: 1660–1672.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Georgiades A, Hinderliter A, Sherwood A . Effects of weight loss on depressive symptoms among men and women with hypertension. J Psychosom Res 2007; 63: 463–469.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Surwit RS, Feinglos MN, McCaskill CC, Clay SL, Babyak MA, Brownlow BS et al. Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 908–915.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Tanco S, Linden W, Earle T . Well-being and morbid obesity in women: a controlled therapy evaluation. Int J Eat Disord 1998; 23: 325–329.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Van Gaal LF, Scheen AJ, Rissanen AM, Rossner S, Hanotin C, Ziegler O et al. Long-term effect of CB1 blockade with rimonabant on cardiometabloic risk factors: two year results from the RIO-Europe Study. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 1761–1771.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Vander Wal JS, McBurney MI, Cho S, Dhurandhar NV . Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2007; 58: 331–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Wadden TA, Mason G, Foster GD, Stunkard AJ, Prange AJ . Effects of a very low calorie diet on weight, thyroid hormones and mood. Int J Obes 1990; 14: 249–258.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Wadden TA, Foster GD, Sarwer DB, Anderson DA, Gladis M, Sanderson RS et al. Dieting and the development of eating disorders in obese women: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 560–568.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Williamson DA, Martin CK, Anton SD, York-Crowe E, Han H, Redman L et al. Is caloric restriction associated with development of eating-disorder symptoms? Results from the CALERIE trial. Health Psychol 2008; 27 (Suppl 1): S32–S42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Wing RR, Marcus MD, Blair EH, Burton LR . Psychological responses of obese type II diabetic subjects to very-low-calorie diet. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 596–599.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J . An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561–571.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK . Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Radloff LS . The CES-D scale: a self report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977; 1: 385–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Fazio AF . A Concurrent Validation Study of the NCHS’ General Well-Being Schedule. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, No. 73. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Hyattsville, MD, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP . The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 361–370.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Hamilton M . Rating depressive patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1980; 41: 21–24.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Zuckerman M, Lubin B . Manual for the Revised Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. Educational and Industrial Testing Service: San Diego, CA, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  73. McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF . Educational and Trial Testing Service Manual: Profile of Mood States. Educational and Industrial Testing Service: San Diego, CA, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Derogatis LR . The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. NCS Assessments: Minneapolis, MN, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Brownell KD . The LEARN Program for Weight Management, 10th edn. American Health Publishing Company: Dallas, TX, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  76. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): Description of Lifestyle Intervention. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 2165–2171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H . Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2.2.023) [Computer software], Biostat: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2005.

  78. Cohen J . Statistical Power for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: Hillsdale, NJ, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Greer TF, Trivedi MH . Exercise in the treatment of depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2009; 11: 466–472.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Blake H, Mo P, Malik S, Thomas S . How effective are physical activity interventions for alleviating depressive symptoms in older people? A systematic review. Clin Rehabil 2009; 23: 873–887.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Maciejewski ML, Patrick DL, Williamson DF . A structured review of randomized controlled trials of weight loss showed little improvement in health-related quality of life. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 568–578.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, Taylor MA, Rapoport L, Green M et al. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment of psychological function. Am J Med 2000; 108: 547–553.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Mazzoni T, Mannucci E, Rizzello SM, Ricca V, Rotella CM . Failure of acupuncture in the treatment of obesity: a pilot study. Eat Weight Disord 1999; 4: 198–202.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Renjilian DA, Perri MG, Nezu AM, McKelvey WF, Shermer RI, Anton SD . Individual versus group therapy for obesity: effects of matching participants to their treatment preferences. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 717–721.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Painot D, Jotternad S, Kammer A, Fossatin M, Goaly A . Simultaneous nutritional cognitive-behavioural therapy in obese patients. Patient Educ Couns 2001; 42: 47–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Kiernan M, King AC, Stefanick ML, Killen JD . Men gain additional psychological benefits by adding exercise to a weight-loss program. Obes Res 2001; 9: 770–777.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported, in part, by a grant from Merck to Fabricatore and by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants K23 DK070777 and K24 DK065018 to Fabricatore and Wadden, respectively.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A N Fabricatore.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

Fabricatore has served as a consultant for Pfizer, Merck and Ethicon-Endosurgery, and has received research support (including funding for this study) from Merck. Although he is now employed by Nutrisystem, Inc., Fabricatore was employed full-time at the University of Pennsylvania (where he retains an adjunct appointment) at the time the study was completed. Wadden serves on the Advisory Boards of Novo Nordisk and Orexigen and has received research support from Orexigen and Pfizer. Nguyen is employed by Merck and Heymsfield was employed by Merck at the time the work was completed. Faith has served as a consultant to, and has received research support from, Merck. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fabricatore, A., Wadden, T., Higginbotham, A. et al. Intentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes 35, 1363–1376 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.2

Keywords

  • depression
  • meta-analysis
  • diet
  • exercise
  • lifestyle
  • pharmacotherapy

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links