Table 4 Effect of fructose on metabolic parameters (% change)

From: Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response

  Control (n=36) Allopurinol (n=38) P-value
Weight change (kg) 0.6±0.2 (0.7%) 0.7±0.2 (0.8%) NS
BMI change (kg m−2) 0.2±0.1 (0.7%) 0.2±0.1 (0.7%) NS
Ambulatory BP (change mm Hg)
 24 h SBP 6.9±2.3 (5.5%) 2.1±1.2 (1.5%) 0.06
 24 h DBP 4.7±1.6 (6.3%) 1.0±0.8 (1%) <0.02
Daytime BP
 SBP 7.2±2.4 (5.6%) 1.5±1.2 (1.1%) <0.04
 DBP 5.5±1.8 (7.1%) 0.5±0.8 (0.7%) <0.02
Nighttime BP
 SBP 6.5±2.1 (5.6%) 2.6±2.1 (2.2%) NS
 DBP 3.9±1.8 (5.7%) 1.4±1.1 (2.0%) NS
Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) 5±2 (5.4%) 1±1 (1%) <0.03
Pulse rate 4±1 (8%) 0±1 (0%) <0.01
Triglycerides (change) (mmol l−1) 0.62±0.23 (40.4%) 0.82±0.26 (45.6%) NS
Cholesterol (change) (mmol l−1) 0.26±0.1 (4.7%) 0.26±0.08 (4.6%) NS
 HDL (mmol l−1) −0.06±0.02 (−5.4%) −0.09±0.03 (−7.5%) NS
 LDL (mmol l−1) 0.18±0.08 (5.4%) −0.08±0.08 (−2.2%) 0.02
 VLDL (mmol l−1) 0.31±0.09 (44.3%) 0.39±0.12 (47%) NS
Glucose (mmol l−1) 0.05±0.06 (1%) 0.15±0.06 (2.7%) NS
Insulin (pmol l−1) 14.6±3.5 (32%) 10.4±4.9 (18.5%) NS
HOMA index (change) 0.57±0.16 (33.5%) 0.50±0.19 (23.8%) NS
Uric acid (μmol l−1) 65±6 (21.2%) −113±12 (−31.7%) <0.001
Liver tests
 GGT (U l−1) 13±4 (36.1%) 6±5 (13.3%) NS
 AST (U l−1) 3±1 (15%) 9±3 (39.1%) <0.07
 ALT (U l−1) 9±5 (39.1%) 3±1 (10%) NS
  1. Abbreviations: AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine transaminase; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GGT, gamma glutamyl transferase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NS, not significant; SBP, systolic blood pressure.
  2. The P-value compares the change in the control group with the change in the allopurinol group. Values shown are mean±s.e.m.