Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Egg breakfast enhances weight loss

Abstract

Objective:

To test the hypotheses that an egg breakfast, in contrast to a bagel breakfast matched for energy density and total energy, would enhance weight loss in overweight and obese participants while on a reduced-calorie weight loss diet.

Subjects:

Men and women (n=152), age 25–60 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 and 50 kg m−2.

Design:

Otherwise healthy overweight or obese participants were assigned to Egg (E), Egg Diet (ED), Bagel (B) or Bagel Diet (BD) groups, based on the prescription of either an egg breakfast containing two eggs (340 kcal) or a breakfast containing bagels matched for energy density and total energy, for at least 5 days per week, respectively. The ED and BD groups were suggested a 1000 kcal energy-deficit low-fat diet, whereas the B and E groups were asked not to change their energy intake.

Results:

After 8 weeks, in comparison to the BD group, the ED group showed a 61% greater reduction in BMI (−0.95±0.82 vs −0.59±0.85, P<0.05), a 65% greater weight loss (−2.63±2.33 vs –1.59±2.38 kg, P<0.05), a 34% greater reduction in waist circumference (P<0.06) and a 16% greater reduction in percent body fat (P=not significant). No significant differences between the E and B groups on the aforementioned variables were obtained. Further, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, did not differ between the groups.

Conclusions:

The egg breakfast enhances weight loss, when combined with an energy-deficit diet, but does not induce weight loss in a free-living condition. The inclusion of eggs in a weight management program may offer a nutritious supplement to enhance weight loss.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1

References

  1. World Health Organization. World Health Report—Life in the 21st Century: A Vision for All. WHO: Geneva, 1998.

  2. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM . Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 1549–1555.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Manson JE, Stevens J, VanItallie TB . Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA 1999; 282: 1530–1538.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ . Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of US adults. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 1625–1638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall MS, Allison DB . Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 2003; 289: 187–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH . The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999; 282: 1523–1529.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L . Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 24–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Thompson D, Edelsberg J, Colditz GA, Bird AP, Oster G . Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 2177–2183.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kolotkin RL, Meter K, Williams GR . Quality of life and obesity. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 219–229.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Puhl R, Brownell KD . Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obes Res 2001; 9: 788–805.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Drewnowski A . Energy density, palatability, and satiety: implications for weight control. Nutr Rev 1998; 56: 347–353.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Poppitt SD . Energy density of diets and obesity. Int J Obes 1995; 19: S20–S23.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Rolls BJ, Bell EA . Dietary approaches to the treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am 2000; 84: 401–418.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Stubbs J, Ferres S, Horgan G . Energy density of foods: effects on energy intake. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2000; 49: 481–515.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Thorwart ML . Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 448–455.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rolls BJ, Castellaos VH, Halford JC, Kilara A, Panyam D, Pelkman CL et al. Volume of food consumed affect satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 1170–1177.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Burton-Freeman B . Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr 2000; 130 (suppl): 272–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Howarth NC, Huang TTK, Roberts SB, McCrory MA . Dietary fiber and fat are associated with excess weight in young and middle-aged US adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105: 1365–1372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB . Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 2001; 59: 129–139.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS . Salad and satiety: energy density and portion size of a first-course salad affect energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104: 1570–1576.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Holt SHA, Brand Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E . A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49: 675–690.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Holt SHA, Brand Miller JC, Stitt PA . The effects of equal-energy portions of different breads on blood glucose levels, feelings of fullness and subsequent energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101: 767–773.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Vander Wal JS, Marth JM, Khosla P, Jen C, Dhurandhar NV . Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24: 510–515.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Stewart AL, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, Wells KB, Nelson EC, Kamberg CJ et al. Summary and discussion of MOS measures. In: Stewart AL, Ware Jr JE (eds). Measuring Functioning and Well-Being: The Medical Outcome Study Approach. Duke University Press: Durham, NC, 1992, pp 345–371.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ware Jr JE, Sherbourne CD . The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 473–483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hays RD, Shapiro MF . An overview of generic health-related quality of life measures for HIV research. Qual Life Res 1992; 1: 91–97.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Stunkard AJ, Messick S . The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res 1985; 29: 71–83.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Laporte DJ, Stunkard AJ . Predicting attrition and adherence to a very low calorie diet: a prospective investigation of the eating inventory. Int J Obes 1990; 14: 197–206.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Westenhoefer J, Stunkard AJ, Pudel V . Validation of the flexible and rigid control dimensions of dietary restraint. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 26: 53–64.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Bish CL, Blank HM, Maynard LM, Serdula MK, Thompson NJ, Khan LK . Health related quality of life and weight loss practices among overweight and obese US adults 2003: behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Med Gen Med 2007; 9: 35.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Teff KL, Young SN, Blundell JE . The effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on subsequent plasma amino acid levels, satiety, and nutrient selection in males. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989; 34: 829–837.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Wright JD, Wang CY, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Bethene ER . Dietary intake of ten key nutrients for public health, United States: 1999–2000. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No: 334 April 17, 2003.

  33. Clarke RFC, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R . Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 1997; 314: 112–117.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Herron KL, Fernandez ML . Are the current dietary guidelines regarding egg consumption appropriate? J Nutr 2004; 134: 187–190.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Herron KL, Vega-Lopez S, Conde K, Ramjiganesh T, Shachter NS, Fernandez ML . Men classified as hypo- or hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol feeding exhibit differences in lipoprotein metabolism. J Nutr 2003; 133: 1036–1042.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Howell WJ, McNamara DJ, Tosca MA, Smith BT, Gaines JA . Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1747–1764.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson J, Ascherio A, Colditz G et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999; 281: 1387–1394.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, Fish B, Walden C, Wallick S, Anderson M et al. Effects of insulin resistance and obesity on lipoproteins and sensitivity to egg feeding. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23: 1437–1443.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. McNamara DJ . The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up? J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 19: 540S–548S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. McNamara DJ . Eggs and heart disease risk: perpetuating the misperception. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 333–335.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Presnell K, Stice E, Tristan J . Experimental investigation of the effects of naturalistic dieting on bulimic symptoms: moderating effects of depressive symptoms. Appetite 2008; 50: 91–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the contribution of our study coordinator, Ms Natalie Currier, in outpatient visits and follow-up of the study participants.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N V Dhurandhar.

Additional information

Performance site: Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.

Funding source: American Egg Board.

Presented at: Experimental Biology 2007.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wal, J., Gupta, A., Khosla, P. et al. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obes 32, 1545–1551 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.130

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.130

Keywords

  • satiety
  • hunger
  • proteins
  • bagels

Further reading

Search

Quick links