Conceptual model linking improvements in erectile function with sexual self-confidence. Squares represent observed measures and circles represent latent variables. Arrows indicate regression coefficients (β) for paths. Regression coefficients are shown for latent variables. A positive coefficient indicates that an improvement on one measure is associated with an improvement on another measure. Significant regression (P⩽0.05) are denoted by an *. Regression coefficients for the development sample are shown in black and coefficients for the validation sample are shown in gray. Correlations between the covariates are estimated in the model but are not presented. Separate pathways (shown in gray) are fit for age, ED severity, concomitant medications, diabetes, and baseline erectile function to sexual relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, sexual communication conflict, time concerns, spontaneity, and sexual self-confidence. Beta estimates for covariate pathways are reported elsewhere.