Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study

A Retraction to this article was published on 24 May 2012


The accumulating effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by a conventional mobile phone (MP) on male sexual behaviour have not yet been analyzed. Therefore, we studied these effects in 18 male rabbits that were randomly divided into phone and control groups. Six female teasers were taken successively to the male's cage and the copulatory behavior was recorded. Serum total testosterone, dopamine and cortisol were evaluated. The animals of the phone group were exposed to MPs (800 MHz) in a standby position for 8 h daily for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, the copulatory behavior and hormonal assays were re-evaluated. Mounts without ejaculation were the main mounts in the phone group and its duration and frequency increased significantly compared with the controls, whereas the reverse was observed in its mounts with ejaculation. Ejaculation frequency dropped significantly, biting/grasping against teasers increased notably and mounting latency in accumulated means from the first to the fourth teasers were noted in the phone group. The hormonal assays did not show any significant differences between the study groups. Therefore, the pulsed radiofrequency emitted by a conventional MP, which was kept on a standby position, could affect the sexual behavior in the rabbit.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3


  1. Hossmann KA, Hermann DM . Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24: 49–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Paulraj R, Behari J . Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutat Res 2006; 596: 76–80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Masters WH, Johnson VE . Human Sexual Response. Bantam Books: New York, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baldwin JD, Baldwin JI . Sexual behavior. In: Ramachandran VS (ed). Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Elsevier Science: Philadelphia, 2002, pp 309–322.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. Jung JH, Kam SC, Choi SM, Jae SU, Lee SH, Hyun JS . Sexual dysfunction in male stroke patients: correlation between brain lesions and sexual function. Urology 2008; 71: 99–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Meco G, Rubino A, Caravona N, Valente M . Sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 451–456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama H . Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit. Int J Androl 2008; e-pub ahead of print 2 December 2008; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00940.x.

  8. Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama H, Kagawa S . The mobile phone decreases fructose but not citrate in rabbit semen: a longitudinal study. Syst Biol Reprod Med (in press).

  9. Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J . Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: 124–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Dasdag M, Zulkuf Akdag F, Aksen F, Yilmaz M, Bashan M, Mutlu Dasdag M et al. Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes. Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24: 182–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Yan JG, Agresti M, Bruce T, Yan YH, Granlund A, Matloub HS . Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats. Fertil Steril 2007; 88: 957–964.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dewsbury DA . The normal heterosexual pattern of copulatory behaviour in male rats. In: Sandler M, Gessa GL (eds). Effects of Drugs that Alter Brain Monoamine Levels. Raven Press: New York, 1975, pp 169–179.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Hagen WK . Colony husbandry. In: De Weisbrotj D (ed). The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. S. Lea & Fabiger: Philadelphia, 1982, pp 23–41.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Almeida SA, Kempinas WG, Lamano Carvalho TL . Sexual behavior and fertility of male rats submitted to prolonged immobilization-induced stress. Braz J Med Biol Res 2000; 33: 1105–1109.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Sato Y, Suzuki N, Horita H, Wada H, Shibuya A, Adachi H et al. Effects of long-term psychological stress on sexual behavior and brain catecholamine levels. J Androl 1996; 17: 83–90.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Szeto A, Gonzales JA, Spitzer SB, Levine JE, Zaias PG, Saab N et al. Circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones in WHHL and NZW rabbits: circadian cycle and response to repeated social encounter. Psychoneuroendocrinol 2004; 29: 861–866.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Wilson JR, Kuehn RE, Beach FA . Modification in the sexual behavior of male rat produced by changing the stimulus female. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1963; 56: 636–644.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Villagran C, Navarro J, Fuentes VO . Sexual exhaustion in White New Zealand male rabbits of different ages. Anim Reprod Sci 2003; 76: 251–255.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Wommack JC, Delville Y . Repeated social stress and the development of agonistic behavior: individual differences in coping responses in male golden hamsters. Physiol Behav 2003; 80: 303–308.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ammari M, Brillaud E, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H et al. Effect of a chronic GSM 900 MHz exposure on glia in the rat brain. Biomed Pharmacother 2008; 62: 273–281.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Dubreuil D, Jay T, Edeline JM . Does head-only exposure to GSM-900 electromagnetic fields affect the performance of rats in spatial learning tasks? Behav Brain Res 2002; 129: 203–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Sokolovic D, Djindjic B, Nikolic J, Bjelakovic G, Pavlovic D, Kocic G et al. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave radiation from mobile phones in rat brain. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 2008; 49: 579–586.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hull EM . Male sexual behavior. In: Pfaff DW, Arnold AP, Etgen AM, Rubin RT, Fahrbach SE (eds). Hormones, Brain and Behavior, vol. I. Elsevier Science: Philadelphia, 2002, pp 3–137.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  24. Hull EM . Dopaminergic influences on male rat sexual behavior. In: Micevych PE, Hammer RPJ (eds). Neurobiological Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1995, pp 234–253.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Heaton JP, Varrin SJ . Effect of castration and exogenous testosterone supplementation in an animal model of penile erection. J Urol 1994; 151: 775–779.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Giuliano F, Rampin O . Central control of penile erection. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000; 24: 517–533.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Melin P, Kihlstrom JE . Influence of oxytocin on sexual behaviour in male rabbits. Endocrinology 1963; 73: 433–435.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kumar P, Kumar A . Possible role of sertraline against 3-nitropropionic acid induced behavioral, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009; 33: 100–108.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Irmak MK, Fadillioğlu E, Güleç M, Erdoğan H, Yağmurca M, Akyol O . Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits. Cell Biochem Funct 2002; 20: 279–283.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Baydas G, Kutlu S, Naziroglu M, Canpolat S, Sandal S, Ozcan M et al. Inhibitory effects of melatonin on neural lipid peroxidation induced by intracerebroventricularly administered homocysteine. J Pineal Res 2003; 34: 36–39.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Köylü H, Mollaoglu H, Ozguner F, Naziroglu M, Delibas N . Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain. Toxicol Ind Health 2006; 22: 211–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM . Lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates: the role of iron and hydroxyl radicals. J Neurochem 1997; 69: 1330–1331.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to N Salama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Salama, N., Kishimoto, T., Kanayama, Ho. et al. Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study. Int J Impot Res 22, 127–133 (2010).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • mobile phone
  • sexual behavior
  • rabbit
  • radiofrequency

Further reading


Quick links