Original Article | Published:

Comparison of arteriosclerotic indicators in patients with ischemic stroke: ankle–brachial index, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio–ankle vascular index

Hypertension Research volume 38, pages 323328 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

The ankle–brachial index (ABI), brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI) are surrogate markers of arteriosclerosis. However, their roles in patients with acute ischemic stroke remain unclear. From October 2003 to September 2011, we enrolled patients with arteriosclerotic ischemic stroke (AIS) exhibiting large infarcts attributed to large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) or deep subcortical infarcts (mainly lacunar infarcts) attributed to small-artery disease (SAD). Outpatients without a history of stroke served as controls (CTL). We divided the study period into two terms and assessed patients using two different oscillometric devices (Form PWV/ABI, Omron Colin; and VaSera VS-1500, Fukuda Denshi) in each term. One-way analysis of variance and age- and sex-adjusted analysis of covariance were used to compare the three groups. We analyzed 842 patients. The ABI was significantly lower in the LAA (n=102) group than in the SAD (n=280) and CTL (n=460) groups. The baPWV was significantly higher in the LAA and SAD groups than in the CTL group. The CAVI gradually increased in the order of CTL, SAD and LAA. The cutoff values of baPWV and CAVI for detection of AIS were 18.3 m s−1 (odds ratio (OR): 6.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.97–9.62, P<0.01) and 9.5 (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24–1.70, P<0.001), respectively. Among the three indicators, a lower ABI indicated advanced atherosclerosis associated with LAA, and an increased baPWV more closely indicated AIS. An increased CAVI may indicate the degree of vessel stiffness due to arteriosclerosis.

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Acknowledgements

This study was partially funded by The Kawasaki Foundation for Medical Science and Medical Welfare. Dr Saji has received research grants from The Kawasaki Foundation for Medical Science and Medical Welfare and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26870765) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Stroke Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan

    • Naoki Saji
    • , Kazumi Kimura
    •  & Yoshiki Yagita
  2. Department of Neurology, Hyogo Brain and Heart Center at Himeji, Hyogo, Japan

    • Naoki Saji
    • , Toshitaka Kawarai
    • , Hirotaka Shimizu
    •  & Yasushi Kita
  3. Department of Neurological Science, Nippon Medical School Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

    • Kazumi Kimura

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Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Naoki Saji.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.8

Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on Hypertension Research website (http://www.nature.com/hr)

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