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Higher Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity Is Associated with More Advanced Carotid Atherosclerosis in End-Stage Renal Disease


Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is a new measure of arterial stiffness. We examined whether higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with more advanced carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with end-stage renal disease, and whether this effect would be mediated by the influence of wave reflection on central arterial pressure. In 68 patients with end stage renal disease, we examined blood pressures, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and the augmentation index of the left common carotid artery, a measure of the impact of wave reflection on the systolic peak in central arteries. The degree of carotid atherosclerosis was quantified by a plaque score and maximum intimal-medial thickness. Echocardiography was used to determine the left ventricular mass index. In simple regression analysis, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was correlated with both plaque score and maximum intimal-medial thickness (r=0.420, p<0.001 and r=0.452, p<0.0005, respectively) but not with left ventricular mass index. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the plaque score or maximum intimal-medial thickness as the dependent variable and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and known clinical risk factors as the independent variables. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was an independent risk factor for both plaque score (β=0.006, p=0.004) and maximum intimal-medial thickness (β=0.008, p=0.04). Independent risk factors for left ventricular mass index were left ventricular diastolic dimension (β=3.509, p=0.000007) and augmentation index (β=0.580, p=0.04). The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was unrelated to augmentation index in patients with end stage renal disease. In conclusion, higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was found to be a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage renal disease; this effect was independent of the influence of wave reflection on central arterial pressure. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was unrelated to left ventricular structure.


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Correspondence to Masanori Munakata.

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Munakata, M., Sakuraba, J., Tayama, J. et al. Higher Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity Is Associated with More Advanced Carotid Atherosclerosis in End-Stage Renal Disease. Hypertens Res 28, 9–14 (2005).

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  • end-stage renal disease
  • atherosclerosis
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • augmentation index
  • pulse wave velocity

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