Evidence is presented that copper tolerance in the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus is determined primarily by a single major gene. Selfed progenies of segregating T × T families produce families which are all T, segregating or all NT in a 1:2:1 ratio. Segregating T × NT crosses produce approximately 1:1 ratios. Significant heterogeneity between families within classes suggests that there are genetic modifiers also segregating, though some of the heterogeneity may be due to environmental factors. These results indicate that copper tolerance in this organism has evolved in a manner analogous to other adaptations such as mimicry, industrial melanism and pesticide resistance. The results also suggest that physiological models of metal tolerance involving many biochemical and physiological changes may need revision.
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MacNair, M. The genetic control of copper tolerance in the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus. Heredity 50, 283–293 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1983.30
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