Numbers of chiasmata in the production of each gamete are closely related to the proportion of gametes which fail to function (r = 0·81 for 24 species). Gamete redundancy and chiasma frequency fail to correlate with chromosome number, DNA weight/nucleus, or the weight or age of the animal at puberty, as closely as with each other. Implications and corollaries are considered, and it is concluded that most gametes are functionless by-products of a necessarily faulty production system.
Adler, M T, and Zoloth, S R. 1970. Copulatory behaviour can inhibit pregnancy in female rats. Science, 168, 1480–1482.
Ahmed, M, and Sparks, A K. 1970. Chromosome number, structure and autosomal polymorphism in the marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Mytilus californianus. Biol Bull, 138, 1–13.
Braden, A W H, and Weiler, H. 1964. Transmission ratios at the T-locus in the mouse: inter-and intra-male heterogeneity. Aust J Biol Sci, 17, 921–934.
Cohen, Jack. 1967. Correlation between sperm “redundancy” and chiasma frequency. Nature, 215, 862–863.
Cohen, Jack. 1969. Why so many sperms? An essay on the arithmetic of reproduction. Sci Prog, Oxf, 57, 23–41.
Cohen, Jack. 1971. Comparative physiology of gamete populations. Advances in Comp. Physiol Biochem, 4, 268–380.
Datta, M. 1970. Re-investigation of meiosis in the male goat, Capra hircus. Linn. Cytologia, 35, 344–353.
Eliasson, K, Gustavsson, I, Hulten, M, and Linsten, J. 1967. The meiotic chromosomes of the male dog. Hereditas, 58, 135–135.
Evans, H J. 1968. Personal communication.
Fellous, M, and Dausset, J. 1970. Probable haploid expression of HL-A antigens on human spermatozoan. Nature, 225, 191–193.
Ford, C E. 1972. Gross genome unbalance in mouse spermatozoa: does it influence the capacity to fertilize? In Edinburgh Symposium on the Genetics of the Spermatozoon (ed. R. A. Beatty and Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch), 359–369. Published by University of Edinburgh.
Longwell, A C, Stiles, S S, and Smith, D G. 1967. Chromosome complement of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica as seen in meiotic and cleaving eggs. Can J Genet Cytol, 9, 845–856.
Longwell, A C, and Stiles, S S. 1968. Fertilisation and Completion of Meiosis in Spawned Eggs of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica Emelin). Caryologia, 21, 65–73.
Magni, G E, and Sora, S. 1969. Relationships between recombination and mutation. In Mutation as a Cellular Process (ed. G. E. W. Wolstenholme and M. O'Connor), 186–198. Churchill, London.
Oldfield, G N, Newell, I M, and Reed, D K. 1972. Insemination of protogynes of Acutus cornutus from spermatophores and description of the sperm cell. Ann Ent Soc Amer, 65, 1080–1084.
Robinson, R. 1959. Genetics of die domestic cat. Bibliographica Genetica, 18, 273–355.
Whitehouse, H L K. 1970. The mechanism of genetic recombination. Biol Rev, 45, 265–315.
Wilkes, A. 1965. Sperm transfer and utilization by the arrhenotokous wasp Dahlbominus fuscipennis. (Zett.) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). Can Entomol, 97, 647–657.
About this article
Cite this article
Cohen, J. Cross-overs, sperm redundancy and their close association. Heredity 31, 408–413 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1973.96
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics (2019)
The American Naturalist (2018)
BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017)
Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology (2016)
Biology Letters (2016)