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Cross-overs, sperm redundancy and their close association


Numbers of chiasmata in the production of each gamete are closely related to the proportion of gametes which fail to function (r = 0·81 for 24 species). Gamete redundancy and chiasma frequency fail to correlate with chromosome number, DNA weight/nucleus, or the weight or age of the animal at puberty, as closely as with each other. Implications and corollaries are considered, and it is concluded that most gametes are functionless by-products of a necessarily faulty production system.


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Cohen, J. Cross-overs, sperm redundancy and their close association. Heredity 31, 408–413 (1973).

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