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This project was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health/National Library of Medicine (1R01LM012180-01). We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of our colleagues from the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute: Meghan Halley for her work in developing the focus groups and videos, and analysis; Lu Wah Hung and Yasmin Hernandez for translation of videos, focus group materials, and data to and from Mandarin and Spanish, respectively, and for leading focus groups; and Harold S. Luft for valuable input on instrument and study design. This study was approved by the institutional review boards of Stanford University and the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, with the informed consent of research participants.

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  1. Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

    • Mildred K Cho
    • , Nina Varsava
    • , David Magnus
    • , Kelly E Ormond
    •  & Sandra S -J Lee
  2. Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics, Seattle Children’s Hospital and Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA

    • Stephanie A Kraft
    •  & Benjamin S Wilfond
  3. Division of Bioethics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine

    • Stephanie A Kraft
    •  & Benjamin S Wilfond
  4. Booster Shot Media, Santa Monica, California, USA

    • Gary Ashwal
    •  & Alex Thomas
  5. Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, USA

    • Katie Gillespie
  6. Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

    • Kelly E Ormond


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Competing interests

G.A. and A.T. are cofounders of Booster Shot Media, the company that produced the video content described in this article, and were consultants on the National Institutes of Health grant that supported this work.

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Correspondence to Mildred K Cho.

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