Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in different intervention groups

From: The effect of music with and without binaural beat audio on operative anxiety in patients undergoing cataract surgery: a randomized controlled trial

Baseline characteristics Control (N=47) MI (N=44) BB (N=44) P-value
Age (years) 69.0±10.0 67.0±7.8 68.4±8.2 0.226
Sex (Female ratio) 1.0 (24:23) 1.4 (18:26) 1.6 (17:27) 0.442
Initial STAI-T score 36.3±6.3 35.4±5.7 37.2±5.5 0.340
Initial STAI-S score 33.8±4.7 33.2±5.1 35.2±4.3 0.123
Blood pressure (mmHg) a
 Systolic 131.9±12.2 137.2±13.1 132.9±9.4 0.079
 Diastolic 74.9±8.5 76.8±10.5 75.0±11.1 0.593
Heart rate (beats/min)a 70.9±8.2 73.7±8.5 73.9±8.8 0.173
Operative time (min) 32.8±11.6 31.5±9.0 33.9±10.8 0.589
  1. Abbreviations: BB, Binaural Beats and Musical Interventions; Control, No music; MI, Musical Interventions; STAI-S, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State; STAI-T, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait.
  2. Values are mean ±SD.
  3. aBlood pressure and heart rate on admission.