Table 3 Associations of risk of primary outcomes (chronic kidney disease progression) with baseline factors

From: Ischemic diabetic retinopathy as a possible prognostic factor for chronic kidney disease progression

Variable Univariate Multivariate
  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P Hazard ratio (95% CI) P
Nonperfusion area ≥10 DA 8.14 (2.73–24.33) <0.001 6.64 (1.96–22.52) 0.002
Neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage on FA 3.01 (1.26–7.19) 0.013 0.91 (0.29–2.78) 0.871
DR stage (Ref=NPDR)
 PDR 3.51 (1.28–9.58) 0.014 0.75 (0.17–3.36) 0.706
 HR-PDR 2.50 (0.82–7.61) 0.107 1.03 (0.29–3.65) 0.961
Age (years) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 0.957   
Men 0.62 (0.27–1.44) 0.268   
History of HTN 1.85 (0.54–6.30) 0.326   
Duration of HTN (years) 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 0.198   
SBP (mm Hg) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.984   
DBP (mm Hg) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.999   
Duration of diabetes (years) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.725   
HbA1c (g/dl) 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 0.589   
Albuminuria (Ref=None)
 Microalbuminuria 9.91 (1.26–77.83) 0.029 1.04 (0.08–13.97) 0.978
 Overt albuminuria 17.07 (2.13–137.04) 0.008 0.99 (0.06–16.91) 0.997
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 1.63 (1.22–2.18) 0.001 1.37 (1.01–1.86) 0.044
BMI (kg/m2) 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 0.545   
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.827   
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 0.173   
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.250   
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 0.73 (0.56–0.94) 0.015 1.03 (0.73–1.45) 0.879
Albumin (g/dl) 0.49 (0.29–0.84) 0.009 0.46 (0.24–0.87) 0.017
Calcium (mg/dl) 0.86 (0.60–1.24) 0.419   
Phosphate (mg/dl) 1.21 (0.79–1.84) 0.390   
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; DA, disc area; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DR, diabetic retinopathy; FA, fluorescein angiography; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HR-PDR, high-risk PDR; HTN, hypertension; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NPDR, nonproliferative DR; PDR, proliferative DR; SBP, systolic blood pressure.
  2. Cox regression model.
  3. Multivariate: forward (conditional).