Lipid peroxidation in proliferative vitreoretinopathies

Abstract

Purpose To study the lipid hydroperoxide activity in vasoproliferative and fibroproliferative retinal disorders.

Methods Vitreous body samples from patients undergoing vitrectomy because of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR; n = 12) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 15), and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment/macular hole/epiretinal membranes as the comparison group (CG; n = 14), were analysed for protein content and basal and induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), as determined by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test and LPO 586 commercial kit. The antioxidant activity for Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also assayed.

Results Malondialdehyde (MDA)-like metabolites and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) mean values were first measured to assess basal LPO, and found to be significantly higher in the PVR and PDR cases than in the CG (p ≤ 0.0001). LPO induced by nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate iron (NADPH-Fe) was then assayed and the data showed that MDA mean values were 5-fold greater for the PVR and PDR eyes than in the case of basal LPO (p ≤ 0.0001). SOD activity was significantly smaller in the PVR (p = 0.0010) and PDR (p ≤ 0.0001) groups than in the CG. CAT levels displayed significantly lower values in the PVR and PDR cases than in the CG (p ≤ 0.0001). No significant differences in free radical (FR) formation and antioxidant status between PVR and PDR patients were observed.

Conclusions Fibrovascular proliferative vitreoretinopathies correlate with increased FR formation and decreased antioxidant activity in the human vitreous body.

References

  1. 1

    Del Maestro RR An approach to free radicals in medicine and biology. Acta Physiol Scand 1980;492:153–68.

  2. 2

    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC . Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage and antioxidant therapy. Lancet 1984;1:1396–7.

  3. 3

    Comporti M . Lipid peroxidation: an overview. In: Poli G, Albano E, Dianzani MU, editors. Free radicals: from basic science to medicine. Turin: Birkhäuser, 1993:65–79.

  4. 4

    Davis RJ, Bulkley GB, Traystman RJ . Role of oxygen free radicals in focal brain ischaemia. Fed Proc 1987;46:799–802.

  5. 5

    Fridovich I . The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 1978;201:875–80.

  6. 6

    Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A . Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 1979;59:527–605.

  7. 7

    Esterbauer H, Zollner HJ, Lang J . Metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product formation 4-hydroxynonenal by isolated hepatocytes and by liver cytosolic fractions. Biochem J 1985;228:363–73.

  8. 8

    Smith PK, Krohn RI, Hermanson GT, Mallia AK, Gartner FH, Provenzano MD, et al. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. Anal Biochem 1985;150:760–85.

  9. 9

    Watson BD . Evaluation of the concomitance of lipid peroxidation in experimental models of cerebral ischaemia and stroke. Prog Brain Res 1993;96:69–95.

  10. 10

    Buege J, Aust S . Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1978;12:302–10.

  11. 11

    Verdejo C, Marco P, Pinazo-Durán MD, Portolés M, Gonzalez-Tomás J . Lipid peroxidation in proliferative vitreoretinopathy and vascular retinopathies. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 1997;72:393–400.

  12. 12

    Azorin I, Bella MC, Iborra FJ, Fornás E, Renau-Piqueras J . Effects of ter-butyl hydroperoxide addition on spontaneous chemiluminescence in brain. Free Radical Biol Med 1995;19:795–803.

  13. 13

    Montoliu C, Vallés S, Renau-Piqueras J, Guerri C . Ethanolinduced oxygen radical formation and lipid peroxidation in rat brain: effect of chronic alcohol consumption. J Neurochem 1994;63:1855–62.

  14. 14

    Pinazo-Durán MD, Verdejo C, Montoliu C, Guerri C . Free radical formation in the eyes during chronic alcohol intoxication. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (in press).

  15. 15

    Bensinger RE, Johnson CM . Luminol assay for Superoxide dismutase. Ann Biochem 1987;110:142–5.

  16. 16

    Paoletti F, Mocali A . Determination of Superoxide dismutase activity by a purely chemical system based on NAD(P)H oxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:209–20.

  17. 17

    Aebi AH . La catalase erythrocytaire. In: Exposés annuels de biochimie médicale. 29ième série. Paris: Masson, 1969:139–66.

  18. 18

    Augustin AH, Breipohl W, Böker T, Lutz J, Spitznas M . Increased lipid peroxide levels and myeloperoxidase activity in the vitreous of patients suffering from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1993;231:647–50.

  19. 19

    Girelli D, Olivieri O, Astanzial AM, Guarini P, Trevisan MT, Bassi A, Corrocher R . Factors affecting the thiobarbituric acid test as index of red blood cell susceptibility to lipid peroxidation: a multivariate analysis. Clin Chim Acta 1994;227:45–57.

  20. 20

    Saornil MA, Pastor JC . Role of intraocular irrigating solutions in the pathogenesis of post-vitrectomy retinal edema. Curr Eye Res 1987;6:1369–79.

  21. 21

    Kehrer JP . Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 1993;23:21–48.

  22. 22

    Luscinskas FW, Cybulsky MO, Kiely J, Peckins CS, Davis VM, Gimbrone MA Jr. Cytokine-activated human endothelial monolayers support enhanced neutrophil transmigration via a mechanism involving both endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Immunol 1991;146:1617–25.

  23. 23

    Parola M, Albano E, Leonarduzzi G, Muraca R, Dianzani I, Poli G, et al. Evidence for a possible role of lipid peroxidation in experimental liver fibrosis. In: Poli G, Albano E, Dianzani MU, editors. Free radicals: from basic science to medicine. Turin: Birkhäuser, 1993:274–86.

  24. 24

    Burke JM, Twining SS . Vitreous macrophage elicitation: generation of stimulants for pigment epithelium in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1987;28:1100–7.

  25. 25

    Meneghini R, Martins EAL, Calderaro M . DNA damage by reactive oxygen species: the role of metals. In: Poli G, Albano E, Dianzani MU, editors. Free radicals: from basic science to medicine. Turin: Birkhäuser, 1993:102–12.

  26. 26

    Frank RN . Etiologic mechanisms in diabetic retinopathy. In: Ryan SJ, editor. Retina, vol II. St Louis: CV Mosby, 1989:301–26.

  27. 27

    Sheiki D, Itin A, Soffer D, Keshet E . Vascular endothelial growth factor induced by hypoxia may mediate hypoxiainitiated angiogenesis. Nature 1992;359:843–5.

  28. 28

    Elker SG, Einer VM, Jaffe JG, Stuart A, Kunkel SL, Strieter RM . Cytokines in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Curr Eye Res 1995;14:1045–53.

  29. 29

    Wiedemann P, Weiler M . The pathophysiology of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1988;189(Suppl):7–13.

  30. 30

    Braudoin C, Gastaud P . La proliferation vitreoretinienne. II. Hypothèses pathogeniques. J Fr Ophtalmol 1994;17:800–11.

  31. 31

    Fuchs J, Packer L . Oxidants and antioxidants. In: Sies H, editor. Oxidant stress. London: Academic Press, 1991:550–83.

  32. 32

    Recasens JF, Green K . The effects of age and inflammation on antioxidant enzyme activity in the eye. Age Ageing 1992;15:114–7.

  33. 33

    Rothstein M . The alteration of enzymes in aging. Modem Aging Res 1985;7:53–67.

  34. 34

    Burke JM . Vitreal Superoxide and Superoxide dismutase after haemorrhagic injury: the role of invasive cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:435–41.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to M D Pinazo-Duran.

Additional information

This work was presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists in Edinburgh 1996 and Glasgow 1998, as a poster

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Free radicals
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Vitreous body

Further reading