Figure 2

From: APE1/Ref-1 as an emerging therapeutic target for various human diseases: phytochemical modulation of its functions

Figure 2

Stress-induced prismatic functions of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1) in different cell types during disease conditions. Activation of APE1/Ref-1 occurs because of various external and internal stimulating factors (for example, radiation, reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and hypoxia). In addition, many misfolded proteins, namely, amyloid beta (Aβ), α- synuclein, Tau and PrPsc, also cause APE1/Ref-1 activation. Further increases in [Ca2+]i also induce APE1/Ref-1 expression in various cell types. Upregulation of APE1/Ref-1 further activates various proteins either directly or indirectly and controls and modulates various key biological functions including DNA repair, cellular redox balance, cell proliferation, cytoskeleton modification and energy metabolism.