Interventions and public health nutrition

The beneficial effects of aerobic and concurrent training on metabolic profile and body composition after detraining: a 1-year follow-up in postmenopausal women

Abstract

Background/Objectives:

Aerobic and concurrent training (CT, aerobic and strength training) improves body composition and metabolic profile; however, it is not known whether these positive outcomes acquired after aerobic or CT are maintained long term (6 months) after program interruption in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the changes in total and appendicular body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic profile following 16 weeks of aerobic or CT, and through 6 months and 1 year of detraining in postmenopausal women.

Subjects/Methods:

In total, 60 postmenopausal women were divided into the following groups: aerobic (AT), aerobic plus strength training (CT) and control group (CG), and 31 participants were assessed for the 1 year follow-up. Body composition and bone mineral density were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were assessed.

Results:

There were main effects of time for arm fat mass, arm lean mass and trunk lean mass (P<0.05). There was a statistical difference between AT and CG for leg fat mass and percentage of fat (P<0.05). After 6 months of detraining, leg lean mass decreased in relation to post-intervention, and there was a statistically significant interaction for total and appendicular lean mass (P<0.05). There were differences between CT and CG in glucose and between AT and CG in glucose and triacylglycerol (P<0.05).

Conclusions:

A duration of 16 weeks of aerobic or CT improved total and appendicular body composition and metabolic profile but after 6 months of detraining, leg lean mass returned to the values obtained pre-training in CT.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2

References

  1. 1

    Toth MJ, Tchernof A, Sites CK, Poehlman ET . Effect of menopausal status on body composition and abdominal fat distribution. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 226–231.

  2. 2

    Polotsky HN, Polotsky AJ . Metabolic implications of menopause. Semin Reprod Med 2010; 28: 426–434.

  3. 3

    Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2008 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2008; 117: e25–146.

  4. 4

    Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41: 1510–1530.

  5. 5

    Ruffino JS, Davies NA, Morris K, Ludgate M, Zhang L, Webb R et al. Moderate-intensity exercise alters markers of alternative activation in circulating monocytes in females: a putative role for PPARgamma. Eur J Appl Physiol 2016; 116: 1671–1682.

  6. 6

    Jeukendrup AE, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ . Fat metabolism during exercise: a review. Part I: fatty acid mobilization and muscle metabolism. Int J Sports Med 1998; 19: 231–244.

  7. 7

    Friedenreich C, Woolcott C, McTiernan A, Terry T, Brant R, Ballard-Barbash R et al. Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes 2011; 35: 427–435.

  8. 8

    Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Tran ZV . Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Womens Health 2004; 13: 1148–1164.

  9. 9

    Silva NL, Oliveira RB, Fleck SJ, Leon AC, Farinatti P . Influence of strength training variables on strength gains in adults over 55 years-old: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships. J Sci Med Sport 2014; 17: 337–344.

  10. 10

    Rossi FE, Buonani C, Viezel J, Gerosa-Neto J, Mota J, Fernandes R et al. [Effects of concurrent training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in postmenopausal women]. RPCD 2013; 13: 12–22.

  11. 11

    Rossi FE, Buonani C, Viezel J, EP da Silva, Diniz TA, VR dos Santos et al. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women. Motriz Revista de Educação Física 2015; 21: 61–67.

  12. 12

    Rossi FE, Fortaleza AC, Neves LM, Buonani C, Picolo MR, Diniz TA et al. Combined training (aerobic plus strength) potentiates a reduction in body fat but demonstrates no difference on the lipid profile in postmenopausal women when compared to aerobic training with a similar training load. J Strength Cond Res 2015; 30: 226–234.

  13. 13

    Mitsuhashi T, Yamada C, Iida A, Hiratsuka N, Inabe F, Araida N et al. Long-term detraining increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2011; 4: 95–99.

  14. 14

    Hauer K, Pfisterer M, Schuler M, Bärtsch P, Oster P . Two years later: a prospective long-term follow-up of a training intervention in geriatric patients with a history of severe falls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 1426–1432.

  15. 15

    Mora-Rodriguez R, Ortega JF, Hamouti N, Fernandez-Elias VE, Canete Garcia-Prieto J, Guadalupe-Grau A et al. Time-course effects of aerobic interval training and detraining in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014; 24: 792–798.

  16. 16

    Lo MS, Lin LL, Yao WJ, Ma MC . Training and detraining effects of the resistance vs. endurance program on body composition, body size, and physical performance in young men. J Strength Cond Res 2011; 25: 2246–2254.

  17. 17

    Egbewale BE . Random allocation in controlled clinical trials: a review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17: 248–253.

  18. 18

    Bhupathiraju SN, Dawson-Hughes B, Hannan MT, Lichtenstein AH, Tucker KL . Centrally located body fat is associated with lower bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94: 1063–1070.

  19. 19

    Trost SG, McIver KL, Pate RR . Conducting accelerometer-based activity assessments in field-based research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (11 Suppl), S531–S543.

  20. 20

    Buonani C, Rosa CS, Diniz TA, Christofaro DG, Monteiro HL, Rossi FE et al. [Physical activity and body composition in menopausal women]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2013; 35: 153–158.

  21. 21

    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS . Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18: 499–502.

  22. 22

    Lejskova M, Alusik S, Suchanek M, Zecova S, Pitha J . Menopause: clustering of metabolic syndrome components and population changes in insulin resistance. Climacteric 2011; 14: 83–91.

  23. 23

    Wakayoshi K, Yoshida T, Udo M, Harada T, Moritani T, Mutoh Y et al. Does critical swimming velocity represent exercise intensity at maximal lactate steady state? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1993; 66: 90–95.

  24. 24

    Diniz TA, Fortaleza AC, Rossi FE, Neves LM, Campos EZ, Freitas Junior I . Short-term program of aerobic training prescribed using critical velocity is effective to improve metabolic profile in postmenopausal women. Sci Sports 2016; 31: 95–102.

  25. 25

    da Silva CM, Gurjão ALD, Ferreira L, Gobbi LTB, Gobbi S . Effect of resistance training. prescribed by zone of maximum repetitions on the muscular strength and body composition in older women. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2006; 8: 39–45.

  26. 26

    Delshad M, Ghanbarian A, Mehrabi Y, Sarvghadi F, Ebrahim K . Effect of strength training and short-term detraining on muscle mass in women aged over 50 years old. Int J Prev Med 2013; 4: 1386.

  27. 27

    Ratel S, Gryson C, Rance M, Penando S, Bonhomme C, Le Ruyet P et al. Detraining-induced alterations in metabolic and fitness markers after a multicomponent exercise-training program in older men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011; 37: 72–79.

  28. 28

    Sherk KA, Bemben DA, Brickman SE, Bemben MG . Effects of resistance training duration on muscular strength retention 6-month posttraining in older men and women. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2012; 35: 20–27.

  29. 29

    Vaquero-Cristóbal R, Alacid F, Esparza-Ros F, Muyor JM, López-Miñarro PÁ . Efectos de un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en mujeres adultas activas tras un corto proceso de desentrenamiento. Nutr Hosp 2015; 31: 1738–1747.

  30. 30

    Zhong S, Chen C, Thompson L . Sarcopenia of ageing: functional, structural and biochemical alterations. Braz J Phys Ther 2007; 11: 91–97.

  31. 31

    Bunout D, de la Maza MP, Barrera G, Leiva L, Hirsch S . Association between sarcopenia and mortality in healthy older people. Australas J Ageing 2011; 30: 89–92.

  32. 32

    Seifert-Klauss V, Fillenberg S, Schneider H, Luppa P, Mueller D, Kiechle M . Bone loss in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: results of a prospective observational study over 9 years. Climacteric 2012; 15: 433–440.

  33. 33

    Melnyk JA, Rogers MA, Hurley BF . Effects of strength training and detraining on regional muscle in young and older men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009; 105: 929–938.

  34. 34

    Correa CS, Cunha G, Marques N, Oliveira-Reischak A, Pinto R . Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2015; 36: 306–310.

  35. 35

    Torres-Leal FL, MD de Capitani, Tirapegui J . The effect of physical exercise and caloric restriction on the components of metabolic syndrome. Braz J Pharm Sci 2009; 45: 379–399.

  36. 36

    Yki-Järvinen H, Koivisto VA . Effects of body composition on insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 1983; 32: 965–969.

  37. 37

    Holloszy J, Hansen P . Regulation of glucose transport into skeletal muscle. Rev Phys Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 128: 99–193.

  38. 38

    Lira FS, Carnevali LC Jr, Zanchi NE, Santos RV, Lavoie JM, Seelaender M . Exercise intensity modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. J Nutr Metab 2012; 2012: 809576.

  39. 39

    Mittendorfer B, Patterson BW, Klein S . Effect of weight loss on VLDL-triglyceride and apoB-100 kinetics in women with abdominal obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003; 284: E549–E556.

  40. 40

    Ghafouri K, Cooney J, Bedford DK, Wilson J, Caslake MJ, Gill JM . Moderate exercise increases affinity of large very low density lipoproteins for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100: 2205–2213.

  41. 41

    Krauss RM . Dietary and genetic probes of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Arterioscl Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 2265–2272.

  42. 42

    Riedl I, Yoshioka M, Nishida Y, Tobina T, Paradis R, Shono N et al. Regulation of skeletal muscle transcriptome in elderly men after 6 weeks of endurance training at lactate threshold intensity. Exp Gerontol 2010; 45: 896–903.

  43. 43

    Tikkanen HO, Hamalainen E, Harkonen M . Significance of skeletal muscle properties on fitness, long-term physical training and serum lipids. Atherosclerosis 1999; 142: 367–378.

  44. 44

    Cesari M, Pahor M, Incalzi RA . Plasminogen activator inhibitor‐1 (PAI‐1): a key factor linking fibrinolysis and age‐related subclinical and clinical conditions. Cardiovasc Ther 2010; 28: e72–e91.

  45. 45

    Yamamoto K, Takeshita K, Kojima T, Takamatsu J, Saito H . Aging and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulation: implication in the pathogenesis of thrombotic disorders in the elderly. Cardiovasc Res 2005; 66: 276–285.

  46. 46

    Englund U, Littbrand H, Sondell A, Bucht G, Pettersson U . The beneficial effects of exercise on BMD are lost after cessation: a 5‐year follow‐up in older post‐menopausal women. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19: 381–388.

  47. 47

    Anjos LA, Barbosa TB, Wahrlich V, Vasconcellos MT . [Patterns of physical activity during a typical day for adults in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: the Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health Survey (PNAFS)]. Cade Saude Publica 2012; 28: 1893–1902.

  48. 48

    Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1435–1445.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to F E Rossi.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rossi, F., Diniz, T., Neves, L. et al. The beneficial effects of aerobic and concurrent training on metabolic profile and body composition after detraining: a 1-year follow-up in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 71, 638–645 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.263

Download citation

Further reading