Original Article | Published:

Clinical Nutrition

DASH dietary pattern and chronic kidney disease in elderly Korean adults

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 71, pages 755761 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Background/Objectives:

Dietary patterns are linked to risk and outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary intake varies by race, region and age. The relationship between a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and CKD in elderly Koreans is unclear.

Subjects/Methods:

We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 2408 community-dwelling elderly participants from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). DASH dietary patterns for six nutrients (protein, fiber, calcium, potassium, total fat and sodium) were collected by 24 h recall. DASH-US (based on the US recommendations) and DASH-KQ (Korean quartile) scores were generated by summing the scores for the six nutrients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) for the association between a DASH diet and CKD.

Results:

Mean subject age was 72.4±5.1 years, 13.9% had CKD and 23.8% had diabetes. Protein, fiber, calcium and potassium intake was lower in CKD than non-CKD participants. In multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbid conditions and other factors, a high DASH score was associated with a low odds for CKD based on DASH-US (OR=0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65–0.94, P=0.009) and DASH-KQ (OR=0.95, 95% CI, 0.91–0.99, P=0.022). In six nutrients of DASH diet, high fiber intake showed a low odds for CKD in the DASH-KQ model (P for trend=0.010).

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that higher adherence to a DASH diet and higher fiber intake are associated with lower odds of CKD in elderly Koreans. These results should be corroborated through longitudinal studies of the association between a DASH diet and high-fiber diet on the risk of developing CKD.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , . Chronic kidney disease. Lancet 2012; 379: 165–180.

  2. 2.

    , , , . Nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Nutrients 2014; 6: 416–451.

  3. 3.

    , , , . Association of dietary patterns with albuminuria and kidney function decline in older white women: a subgroup analysis from the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 245–254.

  4. 4.

    , , , , , et al. Lifestyle-related factors, obesity, and incident microalbuminuria: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Am J Kidney Dis 2013; 62: 267–275.

  5. 5.

    , , , , , et al. Dietary patterns and risk of death and progression to ESRD in individuals with CKD: a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 2014; 64: 204–213.

  6. 6.

    . Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002; 13: 3–9.

  7. 7.

    , , , , , et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 3–10.

  8. 8.

    , , , . Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases—incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition 2013; 29: 611–618.

  9. 9.

    , . Dietary therapy in hypertension. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 2102–2112.

  10. 10.

    , , , . Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet 2014; 383: 1999–2007.

  11. 11.

    , , , , , et al. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010. Nutr Res 2014; 34: 760–770.

  12. 12.

    , , . Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly. Nutr Res Pract 2014; 8: 192–197.

  13. 13.

    , , , . Aging in humans: a continuous 20-year study of physiologic and dietary parameters. J Am Coll Nutr 1992; 11: 660–672.

  14. 14.

    . Energy requirements in the elderly. Nutr Rev 1992; 50: 95–101.

  15. 15.

    , , , , , et al. Trends in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, other chronic diseases and health-related behaviors in an adult Korean population: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 3975–3980.

  16. 16.

    , . Summary of KDIGO 2012 CKD Guideline: behind the scenes, need for guidance, and a framework for moving forward. Kidney Int 2014; 85: 49–61.

  17. 17.

    , , , . Deteriorating dietary habits among adults with hypertension: DASH dietary accordance, NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 308–314.

  18. 18.

    , , , , , . Adherence to a DASH-style diet and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 713–720.

  19. 19.

    , , . Consistency with the DASH diet and incidence of heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 851–857.

  20. 20.

    , , , , , . Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2006; 47: 296–308.

  21. 21.

    , , . Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials. Nutrition 2013; 29: 939–947.

  22. 22.

    , , , , , et al. The effects of dietary patterns on urinary albumin excretion: results of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 638–646.

  23. 23.

    , , , , , . Carbohydrate nutrition is associated with the 5-year incidence of chronic kidney disease. J Nutr 2011; 141: 433–439.

  24. 24.

    , , . Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1998; 279: 1383–1391.

  25. 25.

    , , , . Salt intake and cardiovascular disease: why are the data inconsistent? Eur Heart J 2013; 34: 1034–1040.

  26. 26.

    , , . Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health. Adv Nutr 2015; 6: 260–266.

  27. 27.

    , , , , , et al. Fatal and nonfatal outcomes, incidence of hypertension, and blood pressure changes in relation to urinary sodium excretion. JAMA 2011; 305: 1777–1785.

  28. 28.

    , , , , , et al. The association between dietary sodium intake, ESRD, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 861–866.

  29. 29.

    , , , , . Urinary sodium excretion and kidney failure in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2014; 86: 582–588.

  30. 30.

    , , , , . Association between dietary sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in US adults: a cross-sectional study. Am J Nephrol 2013; 37: 526–533.

  31. 31.

    , , , . Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review. Nutr Rev 2013; 71: 511–527.

  32. 32.

    . Diet and inflammation. Nutr Clin Pract 2010; 25: 634–640.

  33. 33.

    . The Western-style diet: a major risk factor for impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2011; 301: F919–F931.

  34. 34.

    , , , , , et al. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2012; 81: 300–306.

  35. 35.

    , , , , , et al. Cross-sectional associations between macronutrient intake and chronic kidney disease in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Clin Nutr 2013; 32: 606–612.

  36. 36.

    , , , , , et al. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014; 9: 2104–2110.

  37. 37.

    , , , , , et al. Association between albuminuria, kidney function, and inflammatory biomarker profile in CKD in CRIC. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012; 7: 1938–1946.

  38. 38.

    , , , , , . Effect of a high-fiber diet vs a fiber-supplemented diet on C-reactive protein level. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 502–506.

  39. 39.

    . Dietary fiber future directions: integrating new definitions and findings to inform nutrition research and communication. Adv Nutr 2013; 4: 8–15.

  40. 40.

    , . A traditional Korean dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome abnormalities. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2012; 22: 456–462.

  41. 41.

    , . The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009. J Med Food 2014; 17: 43–56.

  42. 42.

    , , , , , et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). J Hum Hypertens 2013; 27: 381–387.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, https://knhanes.cdc.go.kr/knhanes/eng/index.do).

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Nephrology, Total Healthcare Screening Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

    • H S Lee
    • , K B Lee
    •  & Y Y Hyun
  2. Department of Occupational Medicine, Total Healthcare Screening Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

    • Y Chang
    •  & S Ryu
  3. Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Screening Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

    • Y Chang
    • , S Ryu
    •  & Y Choi

Authors

  1. Search for H S Lee in:

  2. Search for K B Lee in:

  3. Search for Y Y Hyun in:

  4. Search for Y Chang in:

  5. Search for S Ryu in:

  6. Search for Y Choi in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K B Lee.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.240

Further reading