Long-term observational cohorts provide the opportunity to investigate the potential impact of dietary patterns on death. We aimed to investigate all-cause death according to the consumption of selected food groups, and then to identify those independently associated with reduced mortality.
Population survey of middle-aged men randomly selected in the period 1995–1997 from the general population of three French areas and followed over a median of 14.8 years. Dietary data were collected through a 3-day food record. Cox modeling was used to assess the risk of death according to selected foods groups after extensive adjustment for confounders, including a diet quality index.
The study population comprised 960 men (mean age 55.5 ±6.2 years). After a median follow-up of 14.8 (interquartile range 14.3–15.2) years, 150 (15.6%) subjects had died. Food groups that remained independently predictive of a lower risk of death after extensive adjustment were an above-median consumption of milk (adjusted relative risk: 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–0.86, P-value=0.005), fruits and vegetables (0.68, 0.46–0.98, P-value=0.041) and a moderate consumption of yogurts and cottage cheese (0.50, 95% CI: 0.31–0.81, P-value=0.005), other cheeses (0.62, 0.39–0.97, P-value=0.036) and bread (0.57, 0.37–0.89, P-value=0.014). Besides, there was a nonsignificant trend for a higher risk of death associated with highest sodium intakes.
Consumption of food groups that largely match recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause death in men. A diet providing moderate amounts of diverse food groups appears associated with the highest life expectancy.
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Differences in all-cause mortality risk associated with animal and plant dietary protein sources consumption
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We thank all the investigators of the MONICA Project for their contribution to the compilation, validation and analysis of the data. We are grateful to the Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE) and the three regional health centers for their collaboration. Sophie Rushton-Smith provided writing support and was funded by the authors. The study received an unrestricted grant from the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l’Economie Laitière (CNIEL).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Bongard, V., Arveiler, D., Dallongeville, J. et al. Food groups associated with a reduced risk of 15-year all-cause death. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 715–722 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.19
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