Table 5 Independent predictors of all-cause death

From: Food groups associated with a reduced risk of 15-year all-cause death

Factor (reference) Adjusted relative risk
(95% confidence interval)
P-value
Center (Toulouse)  
 Strasbourg 1.35 (0.77–2.36) 0.29
 Lille 2.32 (1.43–3.76) 0.001
Age at enrollment (4549 years)
 50–54 1.06 (0.52–2.18) 0.87
 55–59 3.69 (2.08–6.55) <0.0001
60 5.76 (3.30–10.0) <0.0001
No payment of income tax 2.23 (1.55–3.20) <0.0001
Obesity (BMI 30 kg/m2) 1.12 (0.77–1.62) 0.56
Smoking habits (never smokers)
 Past smokers 1.54 (0.94–2.51) 0.08
 Current smokers 2.86 (1.70–4.82) <0.0001
Physical activity (light, i.e., <1 time per week)
 Moderate (20 min, 1–2 times per week) 0.67 (0.36–1.24) 0.21
 High (20 min, on 3 times per week) 1.39 (0.75–2.55) 0.30
 Serious chronic conditiona 1.36 (0.85–2.17) 0.20
Alcohol intake (no consumption)
 Moderate intake (30 g/day) 0.67 (0.26–1.74) 0.42
 High intake (>30 g/day) 0.72 (0.27–1.88) 0.50
 Former consumption 0.93 (0.33–2.58) 0.89
Diet quality score (per 1 unit increase)b 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 0.63
Consumption of milk (Q3–Q4 vs all other subjects, ml/1000 kJ/day)c 0.61 (0.43–0.86) 0.005
Consumption of yogurts and cottage cheese (Q3 vs all other subjects, g/1000 kJ/day)c 0.50 (0.31–0.81) 0.005
Consumption of cheese (except cottage cheese), (Q3 vs all other subjects, g/1000 kJ/day)c 0.62 (0.39–0.97) 0.036
Consumption of fruits and vegetables (Q3–Q4 vs all other subjects, g/1000 kJ/day)c 0.68 (0.46–0.98) 0.041
Consumption of bread (Q3 vs all other subjects, g/1000 kJ/day)c 0.57 (0.37–0.89) 0.014
  1. aHistory of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease), cancer excluding in situ malignant tumors, cirrhosis, hemorrhagic stroke, chronic cardiac failure and chronic renal failure.
  2. bA higher score indicates a better adherence to recommendations.
  3. cQ1: lowest quartile of consumption; Q4: highest quartile of consumption.