Table 4 Rates of death according to the quartile of food consumption

From: Food groups associated with a reduced risk of 15-year all-cause death

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-valuea
Daily calorie intake (kJ/day)
 % Of death 19.6 17.9 12.9 12.1 0.06
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.85 (0.56–1.30) 0.68 (0.42–1.09) 0.66 (0.40–1.10) 0.07
Meat (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 15.8 14.2 15.4 17.1 0.85
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.75 (0.47–1.19) 0.99 (0.63–1.57) 0.97 (0.62–1.52) 0.79
Fish and seafood (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 20.0 11.4 14.2 13.3 0.04
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.63 (0.36–1.10) 0.98 (0.64–1.50) 0.81 (0.52–1.26) 0.51
Eggs (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 17.5 15.8 10.4 18.7 0.06
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.00 (0.62–1.59) 0.67 (0.40–1.12) 1.11 (0.70–1.76) 0.98
Milk (ml/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 19.2 20.4 11.2 11.7 0.005
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.91 (0.60–1.38) 0.53 (0.33–0.86) 0.61 (0.37–0.996) 0.007
Yogurts and cottage cheese (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 22.3 15.3 8.3 15.4 <0.001
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.02 (0.65–1.60) 0.53 (0.32–0.90) 0.96 (0.62–1.49) 0.35
All cheese except cottage cheese (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 19.2 12.5 10.0 20.8 0.002
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.71 (0.44–1.14) 0.55 (0.33–0.92) 1.16 (0.77–1.77) 0.68
Fruits and vegetables (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 20.8 16.2 13.3 12.1 0.041
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.86 (0.55–1.33) 0.63 (0.38–1.03) 0.65 (0.38–1.13) 0.07
Cereals (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 23.3 15.0 10.8 13.3 0.001
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.60 (0.39–0.92) 0.50 (0.31–0.81) 0.76 (0.48–1.19) 0.08
Bread (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 20.8 15.4 10.4 15.8 0.019
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.69 (0.45–1.07) 0.43 (0.26–0.70) 0.80 (0.51–1.26) 0.08
Potatoes (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 11.2 15.4 14.2 21.7 0.015
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.02 (0.61–1.70) 0.89 (0.53–1.50) 1.12 (0.69–1.83) 0.70
  No consumption   Consumption   
Legumes
 % Of death 15.1   17.4   0.41
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1   1.01 (0.68–1.50)   
Sugar and sweets (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 20.8 14.6 11.2 15.8 0.035
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.91 (0.58–1.44) 0.64 (0.39–1.04) 0.66 (0.42–1.06) 0.039
Butter (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 15.8 14.2 17.1 15.4 0.85
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.27 (0.79–2.05) 1.20 (0.75–1.91) 0.91 (0.54–1.52) 0.78
Oil from vegetable sources (g/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 19.2 17.1 10.8 15.4 0.08
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.15 (0.75–1.78) 0.76 (0.46–1.25) 1.00 (0.64–1.58) 0.65
Sodium (mg/1000 kJ/day)
 % Of death 17.5 11.7 15.0 18.3 0.18
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 1.00 (0.61–1.64) 1.33 (0.83–2.15) 1.66 (1.04–2.68) 0.023
  No consumption Moderate intake High intake Former consumption  
Alcohol
 % Of death 8.8 12.7 18.0 23.3 0.018
 Adjusted HR (95% CI) 1 0.86 (0.34–2.19) 0.95 (0.37–2.44) 1.35 (0.49–3.71)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; Q, quartile of consumption (Q1 being the lowest quartile and Q4 the highest quartile).
  2. aUnadjusted comparison of death rates (above line); trend of adjusted HR (below line).
  3. Hazard ratios are adjusted for center, age, payment of income tax, obesity, alcohol consumption (no consumption, moderate intake, high intake or former consumption), smoking habits (never, past or current smoking), physical activity (light, moderate or high), presence of a serious chronic condition and diet quality score. The model exploring the association between alcohol intake and mortality is adjusted for center, age, payment of income tax, obesity, smoking habits (never, past or current smoking), physical activity (light, moderate or high), presence of a serious chronic condition and diet quality score.