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Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 70, pages 13541359 (2016) | Download Citation

  • A Corrigendum to this article was published on 07 December 2016

Abstract

Although higher dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg) seem to correspond to lower diabetes incidence, research concerning Mg supplementation in people with or at risk of diabetes is limited. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters in participants with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes compared with placebo. A literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrials.gov without language restriction, was undertaken. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs placebo in patients with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for summarizing outcomes with at least two studies; other outcomes were summarized descriptively. Eighteen RCTs (12 in people with diabetes and 6 in people at high risk of diabetes) were included. Compared with placebo (n=334), Mg treatment (n=336) reduced fasting plasma glucose (studies=9; SMD=−0.40; 95% CI: −0.80 to −0.00; I2=77%) in people with diabetes. In conditions in people at high risk of diabetes (Mg: 226; placebo=227 participants), Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose levels after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (three studies; SMD=−0.35; 95% CI: −0.62 to −0.07; I2=0%) and demonstrated trend level reductions in HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; five studies; SMD=−0.57; 95% CI: −1.17 to 0.03; I2=88%). Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes and also improves insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes.

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Medicine, DIMED, Geriatrics Section, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

    • N Veronese
    • , G Sergi
    •  & E Manzato
  2. Department of Medicine, DIMED, Endocrinology Unit, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

    • S Watutantrige-Fernando
  3. Department of Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy

    • C Luchini
  4. Surgical Pathology Unit, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy

    • C Luchini
  5. National Health Care System, Padua Local Unit Monselice, ULSS 17, Italy

    • M Solmi
  6. Department of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

    • M Solmi
  7. Department of Medicine, Diabetology and Dietetics Service, Padova University, Padova, Italy

    • G Sartore
  8. National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Padova, Italy

    • E Manzato
  9. Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

    • M Barbagallo
  10. Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    • S Maggi
  11. Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, UK

    • B Stubbs

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Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N Veronese.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.154

Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on European Journal of Clinical Nutrition website (http://www.nature.com/ejcn)

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