Table 5 Nutrient intakes at baseline and at the end of intervention

From: Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of L-Leucine-enriched amino-acid mixtures on body composition and physical performance in men and women aged 65–75 years

Nutritional variables Group A (n=5) Group B (n=8) Group C (n=6) Pre- to post- supplementation difference across groups (ANOVA)
  Baseline Week 12 Mean difference Baseline Week 12 Mean difference Baseline Week 12 Mean difference P
Energy (kcal) 1872±754 1811± 740 −61± 325 1787± 305 1754±363 −33.0±175 1845±411 1812±372 −33.4±325 0.96
Energy (Kcal) % EAR 97.4±35.3 94.8±33.0 −2.6±18.1 87.5±13.0 85.7±12.5 −1.8± 8.3 89.0±24.0 88.1± 20.8 −0.9±17.7 0.77
Total % fat 34.6±12.3 28.2± 8.6 −6.4±7.3 32.7±5.0 31.5±2.3 −1.2±5.8 31.5±5.2 32.3±5.3 0.8±6.5 0.98
Total % CHO 36.9±6.9* 43.1± 3.1 6.2±6.8* 41.7±3.0 42.2±8.2 0.5±2.7 46.9±6.0 47.8±5.4 0.9±3.3 0.05
Total % protein 14.1± 2.7 16.5±4.7 2.4±4.5 17.4±3.8 18.2±3.9 0.8±5.5 16.9±2.4 16.1±3.1 −0.8.± 2.6 0.34
Total % alcohol 14.3±17.4 12.1± 13.6 −1.8±4.1 8.2±6.1 8.2±4.5 0±4.7 4.7± 3.6 3.8±4.3 −0.9±2.9 0.21
Protein (g) 62.5±17.4 71.2±30.2 8.7±15.0 77.5±18.4 72.3±15.9 −5.2±16.7 77.8±19.2 78.6± 20.2 0.8±30.7 0.54
Protein(% RNI) 133.2±37.9 152.2±65.3 19.0±32.2 166±40.4 167±44.1 1.8± 65.7 165.6±39.1 150.1± 40.8 −15.6± 39.8 0.57
Calcium (% RNI) 121± 65.4 108±65.3 −13.0±28.6 109±42.4 107.7±31.7 −1.3±44.3 130±42.0 121± 41.1 −9.± 23.0 0.80
Iron (% RNI) 123.6±65.0 123.2±103.7 0.4±73.2 98.6±1.2 96.3±35.0 −2.3.± 43.0 116±34.5 110±43.7 −6.0±28.6 0.97
Vitamin D (% RNI) 20.6±19.4 39.8±64.0 19.2±68.2 13.7±5.5 46±51.2 32.3±50.8 34.5±14.0 29.5±19.5 −5.± 29.7 0.34
  1. Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; A, standard essential amino-acid mixture (containing 20% leucine); B, modified amino-acid mixture (containing 40% leucine); C, placebo; EAR, estimated average requirement; RNI, reference nutrient intake. All values are means±standard deviation.
  2. Intakes were calculated according to the following UK reference values
  3. EAR Energy=2330 kcal/day ( male 65–74 years), 2100 kcal/day (male 75+ years), 1900 kcal/day (female 65–74 years) and 1810 kcal/day (female 75+ years); RNI protein=53.3 g/day (male 50+ years) and 46.5 g/day (female 50+ years); calcium=700 mg/day (male and female 50+ years); iron=8.7 mg/day (male and female 50+ years) and vitamin D=10 μg/day (male and female 50+ years).
  4. Denotes significantly different from placebo (*P<0.05).