Table 1 Characteristics of weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry and of a representative German population sample

From: Caffeine intake is related to successful weight loss maintenance

  German Weight Control Registry Population-based survey P-value
  N Mean or % s.d. N Mean or % s.d.  
Sex (women vs men) 494 60.7   2129 54.2   0.01a
Age (years) 494 47.6 12.7 2129 45.3 13.0 0.008b
Employment (yes vs no) 489 76.9   2110 70.2   0.003a
Academic degree (yes vs no) 492 46.8   2121 27.8   <0.0001a
Partnership (yes vs no) 490 81.6   2120 65.3   <0.0001a
Current BMI (kg/m2) 494 25.7 4.2 2092 25.7 4.9 0.70b
Maximum BMI (kg/m2) 494 33.2 6.5 1979 27.6 5.8 <0.0001b
Physical activity level (IPAQ)
 Inactive 42 8.8   213 10.5   0.50a
 Minimally active 126 26.4   542 26.7   
 HEPA active 310 64.9   2031 62.8   
Coffee or caffeinated beverages (cups per day) 489 3.8 1.7 2121 3.4 1.6 <0.0001b
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; HEPA, health-enhancing physical activity; IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
  2. aChi-square tests for categorical variables.
  3. bWilcoxon two-sample tests for non-normally distributed and ordinal variables.