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Interventions and public health nutrition

The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls



The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC).


Thirty-five girls (age: 19±1 year; body mass index: 28.4±0.7 kg/m2) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n=20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n=15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC).


In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P<0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P<0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P<0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP–NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups.


Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

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We thank Laura Ortinau and Tyler Lasley for assisting with the glucose and insulin data collection. Regarding the author contributions: AYA and HJL designed the research, conducted the research and analyzed the data. AYA developed the first draft of the paper. AYA, JPT and HJL had primary responsibility for manuscript revisions and final content. All authors substantially contributed to the completion of the manuscript and all have read and approved the final manuscript. The Beef Checkoff and the Egg Nutrition Center supplied funds to complete the study but were not involved in the design, implementation, analysis or interpretation of data.

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Correspondence to H J Leidy.

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Alwattar, A., Thyfault, J. & Leidy, H. The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 885–890 (2015).

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