Table 4 HRs for lung cancer by individual components of four diet quality indices among 277 174 men in the NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study

From: Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH–AARP diet and health study

  HEI-2010 AHEI-2010 aMED score DASH
  HR a , b 95% CI HR a , b 95% CI HR a , b 95% CI HR a , b 95% CI
Whole grains 0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.99 0.97, 1.01 0.93 0.88, 0.98 0.98 0.96, 1.00
Vegetables
 Total vegetables 1.01 0.98, 1.03       
 Total vegetables, excluding potatoes    0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.99 0.93, 1.05 0.98 0.96, 1.00
 Dark-green vegetables, legumes 1.00 0.98, 1.01       
Fruits
 Total fruits 0.98 0.96, 1.00 0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.94 0.89, 0.99 0.97 0.95, 0.99
 Whole fruits 0.98 0.96, 1.00       
Total protein foods 1.01 0.98, 1.05       
 Nuts, soy and legumes    1.00 0.99, 1.01    1.00 0.98, 1.02
 Nuts      0.99 0.94, 1.05   
 Legumes      1.02 0.97, 1.08   
 Seafood and plant protein 0.99 0.97, 1.01       
 Fish      0.98 0.93, 1.03   
 Red and processed meat    0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.96 0.91, 1.02 0.98 0.96, 1.00
Low-fat dairy 1.00 0.99, 1.01      1.00 0.98, 1.02
Fatty acid ratio 0.99 0.98, 1.00    1.00 0.95, 1.06   
trans fat    0.99 0.98, 1.00     
EPA+DHA (omega)    0.99 0.98, 1.00     
PUFAs    0.99 0.98, 1.00     
Alcohol    0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.91 0.85, 0.98   
Refined grains 1.00 0.99, 1.01       
Empty calories
Sugar-sweetened beverages 1.00 0.99, 1.00 1.01 1.00, 1.02    1.03 1.00, 1.05
Sodium 0.98 0.97, 0.99 0.99 0.97, 1.00    0.99 0.96, 1.02
  1. Abbreviations: AHEI-2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010; aMED, alternate Mediterranean Diet; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; CI, confidence interval; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; HEI-2010, Healthy Eating Index-2010; HR, hazard ratio; NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  2. aThe HR is based on a one unit change in the respective component. Higher scores indicate better diet quality.
  3. bMultivariable models adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, physical activity, total energy, smoking status, cigarettes per day, time since quitting smoking, regular use of cigars/pipes and a modified total index score that does not include the respective component. The HEI-2010 and DASH models were also adjusted for alcohol intake.