Table 3 HRs for lung cancer by quintile of diet quality indices, overall and by smoking status, NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study, 1995–2006

From: Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH–AARP diet and health study

Diet quality index All participants Never smokers Former smokers Current smokers
  No. of cases HR a 95% CI No. of cases HR a 95% CI No. of cases HR a 95% CI No. of cases HR a 95% CI
HEI-2010
 1 3076 1.00   77 1.00   1248 1.00   1751 1.00  
 2 1947 0.90 0.84, 0.95 84 0.81 0.59, 1.11 1030 0.90 0.83, 0.98 833 0.89 0.82, 0.97
 3 1640 0.91 0.86, 0.97 95 0.80 0.59, 1.09 978 0.92 0.84, 1.00 567 0.92 0.84, 1.02
 4 1436 0.92 0.86, 0.98 112 0.84 0.62, 1.14 916 0.91 0.83, 1.00 408 0.94 0.84, 1.05
 5 1173 0.83 0.77, 0.89 127 0.83 0.61, 1.13 776 0.82 0.75, 0.91 270 0.82 0.72, 0.94
P trend    <0.0001    0.36    0.0006    0.005
AHEI-2010
 1 2448 1.00   101 1.00   1102 1.00   1245 1.00  
 2 2004 0.96 0.90, 1.02 109 0.98 0.75, 1.29 1016 0.94 0.86, 1.02 879 0.96 0.88, 1.05
 3 1879 0.99 0.93, 1.05 98 0.86 0.65, 1.13 1028 0.95 0.87, 1.03 753 1.04 0.95, 1.14
 4 1601 0.92 0.86, 0.98 93 0.81 0.61, 1.08 943 0.87 0.80, 0.95 565 0.99 0.89, 1.09
 5 1340 0.86 0.80, 0.92 94 0.84 0.63, 1.12 859 0.79 0.72, 0.87 387 0.97 0.86, 1.08
P trend    <0.0001    0.11    <0.0001    0.81
aMED
 1 2232 1.00   85 1.00   991 1.00   1156 1.00  
 2 1849 0.96 0.91, 1.03 85 0.95 0.70, 1.29 987 1.03 0.94, 1.13 777 0.89 0.81, 0.97
 3 1890 0.94 0.88, 1.00 102 0.94 0.70, 1.27 1025 0.94 0.86, 1.03 763 0.92 0.84, 1.01
 4 1660 0.96 0.90, 1.03 97 0.91 0.67, 1.23 963 0.97 0.89, 1.06 600 0.95 0.86, 1.06
 5 1641 0.85 0.79, 0.91 126 0.86 0.64, 1.17 982 0.81 0.74, 0.89 533 0.92 0.82, 1.02
P trend    <0.0001    0.33    <0.0001    0.24
DASH
 1 2791 1.00   90 1.00   1193 1.00   1508 1.00  
 2 1681 0.99 0.93, 1.05 73 0.98 0.72, 1.33 865 1.00 0.91, 1.09 743 0.98 0.90, 1.07
 3 1672 0.96 0.90, 1.02 94 1.00 0.75, 1.34 939 0.96 0.88, 1.04 639 0.95 0.86, 1.04
 4 1960 0.93 0.88, 0.99 137 0.99 0.75, 1.30 1193 0.92 0.84, 1.00 630 0.94 0.86, 1.04
 5 1168 0.84 0.78, 0.90 101 0.83 0.62, 1.13 758 0.81 0.73, 0.89 309 0.92 0.81, 1.05
P trend    <0.0001    0.29    <0.0001    0.10
  1. Abbreviations: AHEI-2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010; aMED, alternate Mediterranean Diet; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; CI, confidence interval; HEI-2010, Healthy Eating Index-2010; HR, hazard ratio; NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons.
  2. aMultivariable models adjusted for age, sex, race, education, body mass index, physical activity, total energy, smoking status, cigarettes per day, time since quitting smoking and regular use of cigars/pipes. The HEI-2010 and DASH models were also adjusted for alcohol intake.