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Vitamins and plant ingredients

Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial



Based on the growing evidence of risk reduction from fresh fruit and vegetable consumption and an inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we determined the benefits of regularly consuming vitamin D-enriched mushrooms in a prediabetic cohort. Exposing edible mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light increases vitamin D2 (D2) and raises serum 25OHD2 in healthy young adults; however, their benefit to deficient prediabetics and glucose metabolism remains untested.


Forty-three prediabetic, D-deficient adults (25OHD≤20 ng/ml), BMI>25 were randomized to four groups consuming daily entrées containing 100 g fresh sliced cooked mushrooms prepared by a chef for 16 weeks. Two groups were fed UVB-treated mushrooms initially containing: 600 IU D2 or 4000 IU D2; each one also received one capsule of placebo daily. Two control groups were fed untreated mushrooms and D3 dietary supplements at two label doses: 600 IU D3 and 4000 IU D3. D2 and D3 content were analyzed in mushrooms, before and after cooking and in over-the-counter supplements.


After 16 weeks, both D2-UVB-mushroom entrée doses, which were significantly lower after cooking, produced modest or no increases in 25OHD2 or total 25OHD relative to the positive control subjects who actually consumed about 1242 and 7320 IU per day of D3 (higher than stated on the label).


Unanticipated D2 cooking loss from fresh UVB mushrooms and probable low absorption and/or hydroxylation may explain the smaller increase in 25OHD2 in our prediabetic overweight/obese cohort compared with past findings in younger, healthy subjects. Moreover, no dose or vitamin D source was associated with modifying T2D risk factors.

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The Mushroom Council, the US FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, the Center for Plant and Mushroom Products for Health at the Penn State University, and the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Research Resources (Grant M01-RR-00071) to the General Clinical Research Center at The Mount Sinai School of Medicine.


The findings and conclusions presented in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of the US Food and Drug Administration. The Mushroom Council did not participate in the study design, data collection, data analysis or manuscript preparation.

Author Contributions

JU, MSC and RBB designed the research; EL and JS conducted the research; AM and JU analyzed the data; MSC, JU and AM wrote the manuscript; MDK had editorial input; JU had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to J Uribarri.

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Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on European Journal of Clinical Nutrition website

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Mehrotra, A., Calvo, M., Beelman, R. et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 68, 1154–1160 (2014).

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