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Food and health

Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men

Subjects

Abstract

Background:

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations.

Methods:

Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only.

Results:

Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (P<0.05). MCT consumption resulted in a lower rise in triglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations.

Conclusions:

MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all participants for their involvement in this study and Xinyue Tong and Lilly Nhan for their assistance in the conduct of the study for study 1 participants. MPSO, BM, HRK and BL designed the research; MPSO, BM and MO conducted research; MPSO, BM and AR analyzed data; MPSO, BM, HRK, BL and AR wrote the paper; MPSO had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This publication was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through Grant Number UL1 TR000040, formerly the National Center for Research Resources, Grant Number UL1 RR024156, the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center Grant Number P30-DK26687. MCT oil was provided by Stepan Company. This trial was registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01952977.

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Correspondence to M-P St-Onge.

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Dr St-Onge is on the Advisory Board of Freelife LLC. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

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St-Onge, MP., Mayrsohn, B., O'Keeffe, M. et al. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men. Eur J Clin Nutr 68, 1134–1140 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2014.145

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