Review | Published:

The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 68, pages 10751087 (2014) | Download Citation

Abstract

Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects’ compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , . Laboratory, epidemiological, and human intervention studies show that tea (Camellia sinensis) may be useful in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 2010; 140: 446–453.

  2. 2.

    , . Obesity IS a disease! Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013; 20: 367–368.

  3. 3.

    , , , . Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of US adults. New Engl J Med 2003; 348: 1625–1638.

  4. 4.

    , . Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res 2011; 64: 438–455.

  5. 5.

    . Recent dynamics suggest selected countries catching up to US obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 284S–288S.

  6. 6.

    , , , , , et al. Effects of traditional and western environments on prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the US. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 1866–1871.

  7. 7.

    , , . Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea. Pharmacol Res 2011; 64: 146–154.

  8. 8.

    , , , , , et al. Risk factors for post-operative mortality in bariatric surgery. J Surg Res 2005; 127: 1–7.

  9. 9.

    , , . Prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Angiology 2004; 55: 589–612.

  10. 10.

    , , . Anti-obesity effects of natural products. Stud Nat Prod Chem 2005; 30: 79–110.

  11. 11.

    , , Phytochemicals and regulation of the adipocyte life cycle. J Nutr Biochem 2008; 19: 717–726.

  12. 12.

    , . Prevention of chronic diseases by tea: Possible mechanisms and human relevance. Annu Rev Nutr 2013; 33: 161–181.

  13. 13.

    , , , , , et al. Neutrophil restraint by green tea: inhibition of inflammation, associated angiogenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis. J Immunol 2003; 170: 4335–4341.

  14. 14.

    , , , , . Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin-1β-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and-13 in human chondrocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308: 767–773.

  15. 15.

    , , , , . Epigallocatechin-gallate enhances the activity of tetracycline in staphylococci by inhibiting its efflux from bacterial cells. Antimicrob Agents Ch 2004; 48: 1968–1973.

  16. 16.

    , , . Antiangiogenic properties of natural polyphenols from red wine and green tea. J Nutr Biochem 2005; 16: 1–8.

  17. 17.

    , . Evaluation of epigallocatechin gallate and related plant polyphenols as inhibitors of the FabG and FabI reductases of bacterial type II fatty-acid synthase. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 30994–31001.

  18. 18.

    , , , . Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenain by green tea catechins. Antivir Res 2003; 58: 167–173.

  19. 19.

    , , , . Neurological mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. J Nutr Biochem 2004; 15: 506–516.

  20. 20.

    USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods Nutrient Data Laboratory. Food Composition Laboratory. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center. Nutrient Data Laboratory. United States Department of Agriculture. Available at . Accessed 20 November 2009.

  21. 21.

    , , , . Factors affecting the levels of tea polyphenols and caffeine in tea leaves. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51: 1864–1873.

  22. 22.

    , , . The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci 1997; 37: 693–704.

  23. 23.

    , . Effects of tea consumption on nutrition and health. J Nutr 2000; 130: 2409–2412.

  24. 24.

    , , , . Tea and cancer prevention: studies in animals and humans. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3268S–3274S.

  25. 25.

    , . Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 3–8.

  26. 26.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29: 31–40.

  27. 27.

    , , , , , . Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br J Nutr 2011; 106: 1880–1889.

  28. 28.

    , , , , , . Effects of green tea supplementation on elements, total antioxidants, lipids, and glucose values in the serum of obese patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2012; 149: 315–322.

  29. 29.

    , , , , , . Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects? J Am Coll Nutr 2007; 26: 396S–402S.

  30. 30.

    , , , . The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women. J Med Food 2013; 16: 120–127.

  31. 31.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 2009; 139: 264–270.

  32. 32.

    , , , . Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav 2006; 87: 185–191.

  33. 33.

    , , , , . Greenselect Phytosome as an adjunct to a low-calorie diet for treatment of obesity: a clinical trial. Altern Med Rev 2009; 14: 154–160.

  34. 34.

    , , , . Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr 2004; 91: 431–437.

  35. 35.

    , , . Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res 2005; 13: 1195–1204.

  36. 36.

    , , . Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects. Int J Obesity 2007; 31: 121–130.

  37. 37.

    , , , , , et al. Efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM-104) in the management of simple obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid Based Compl Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 1–11.

  38. 38.

    , , , , . Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obesity 2008; 32: 1431–1437.

  39. 39.

    , , , , , et al. Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia. Lancet 2006; 368: 1681–1688.

  40. 40.

    , , , . Association of visceral and subcutaneous fat with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in Asian Indians (CURES-113). Clin Biochem 2011; 44: 281–287.

  41. 41.

    , , , , , . Effects of Chinese green tea on weight, and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome—a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Soc Gynecol Invest 2006; 13: 63–68.

  42. 42.

    , , , , , . Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebocontrolled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev 2011; 16: 157–163.

  43. 43.

    , , , , , et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 122–129.

  44. 44.

    , , , , , . Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr 2008; 27: 363–370.

  45. 45.

    , , . A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity 2007; 15: 1473–1483.

  46. 46.

    , , , , , et al. Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity 2010; 18: 773–779.

  47. 47.

    , , , , , et al. Effects of catechin-enriched green tea beverage on visceral fat loss in adults with a high proportion of visceral fat: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Funct Foods 2012; 4: 315–322.

  48. 48.

    , , , , , et al. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: a randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav 2008; 93: 486–491.

  49. 49.

    , , , , . Catechin safely improved higher levels of fatness, blood pressure, and cholesterol in children. Obesity 2008; 16: 1338–1348.

  50. 50.

    , , , . Beneficial effects of catechin-rich green tea and inulin on the body composition of overweight adults. Br J Nutr 2012; 107: 749–754.

  51. 51.

    , , , , . Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women. J Am Coll Nutr 2013; 32: 31–40.

  52. 52.

    , , , . Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr 2005; 94: 432.

  53. 53.

    , , , , , et al. Evaluation of EGCG on thermogenesis and fat oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 25: 441–449.

  54. 54.

    . Adipogenesis: cellular and molecular aspects. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 19: 483–499.

  55. 55.

    , , . Antiobesity effects of green tea catechins: a mechanistic review. J Nutr Biochem 2011; 22: 1–7.

  56. 56.

    . Adipocyte differentiation: from fibroblast to endocrine cell. Exp Biol Med 2001; 226: 997–1002.

  57. 57.

    , , , , , et al. Antimitogenic effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes depends on the ERK and Cdk2 pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2005; 288: C1094–C1108.

  58. 58.

    , , , , , . Blood and urine levels of tea catechins after ingestion of different amounts of green tea by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 351–354.

  59. 59.

    , , , , . Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 727–747.

  60. 60.

    , , , , , et al. Tea catechin suppresses adipocyte differentiation accompanied by down-regulation of PPARγ2 and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. Biosci Biotech Biochem 2004; 68: 2353–2359.

  61. 61.

    , , , . (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks 3T3-L1 adipose conversion by inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of adipose phenotype expression. Life Sci 2011; 89: 779–785.

  62. 62.

    , , , . Growth inhibition, cell-cycle dysregulation, and induction of apoptosis by green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive human prostate carcinoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharm 2000; 164: 82–90.

  63. 63.

    , , , , , . Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced stress signals in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2003; 24: 1369–1378.

  64. 64.

    , , , . Anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on human melanoma: Possible implications for the chemoprevention of melanoma. Int J Cancer 2005; 114: 513–521.

  65. 65.

    , , , , . (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate enhances the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at an early stage of differentiation. Nutrition 2009; 25: 1047–1056.

  66. 66.

    , , , , , et al. Epigallocatechin gallate-induced apoptosis does not affect adipocyte conversion of preadipocytes. Cell Biol Int 2007; 31: 1379–1387.

  67. 67.

    , , , . Absorption, distribution, and elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25: 1045–1050.

  68. 68.

    , , , , . Catechins are bioavailable in men and women drinking black tea throughout the day. J Nutr 2001; 131: 1731–1737.

  69. 69.

    , , , , , et al. Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 1025–1032.

  70. 70.

    , , . Green tea extract inhibits the lymphatic absorption of cholesterol and α-tocopherol in ovariectomized rats. J Nutr 2002; 132: 1282–1288.

  71. 71.

    , , , . Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation. Int J Obesity 2005; 29: 615–623.

  72. 72.

    , , . Epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine differentially inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and fat in ovariectomized rats. J Nutr 2006; 136: 2791–2796.

  73. 73.

    , . Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. J Nutr Biochem 2007; 18: 179–183.

  74. 74.

    , , . Green tea catechins inhibit pancreatic phospholipase A(2) and intestinal absorption of lipids in ovariectomized rats. J Nutr Biochem 2006; 17: 492–498.

  75. 75.

    , , . Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of α-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and lipase. Food Chem 2007; 101: 1178–1182.

  76. 76.

    , , , . Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits lactase but is alleviated by salivary proline-rich proteins. J Agr Food Chem 2011; 59: 2734–2738.

  77. 77.

    , , , , . Evaluation of different teas against starch digestibility by mammalian glycosidases. J Agr Food Chem 2010; 58: 148–154.

  78. 78.

    , , . Inhibition of starch digestion by the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Mol Nutr Food Res 2012; 56: 1647–1654.

  79. 79.

    , , , , , et al. α-Glucosidase inhibitory profile of catechins and theaflavins. J Agr Food Chem 2007; 55: 99–105.

  80. 80.

    , , , , , . Flavonoids for controlling starch digestion: structural requirements for inhibiting human α-amylase. J Med Chem 2008; 51: 3555–3561.

  81. 81.

    , , , , . Regulation of intestinal glucose transport by tea catechins. Biofactors 2000; 13: 61–65.

  82. 82.

    , , , , , . Polyphenol-induced inhibition of the response of Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50: 5215–5219.

  83. 83.

    , , , . Effect of green tea catechins on the postprandial glycemic response to starches differing in amylose content. J Agric Food Chem 2011; 59: 4582–4588.

  84. 84.

    , , , , , . Green tea extract (AR25®) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem 2000; 11: 45–51.

  85. 85.

    , , , . White and green tea polyphenols inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. Food Res Int 2010; 43: 1537–1544.

  86. 86.

    , , , , , et al. Tea catechins with a galloyl moiety suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by delaying lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats. J Nutr 2005; 135: 155–159.

  87. 87.

    , , , . (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits pancreatic lipase and reduces body weight gain in high fat-fed obese mice. Obesity 2012; 20: 2311–2313.

  88. 88.

    , , , , , et al. Characterization of binding interactions of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea and lipase. J Agric Food Chem 2013; 61: 8829–8835.

  89. 89.

    , , , , , et al. Digestion and absorption of 2 fat emulsions with different droplet sizes in the human digestive tract. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1096–1106.

  90. 90.

    , , . Effects of tea polyphenols on emulsification of olive oil in a small intestine model system. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54: 1906–1913.

  91. 91.

    , . Phosphatidylcholine inhibits and lysophosphatidylcholine enhances the lymphatic absorption of α-tocopherol in adult rats. J Nutr 2001; 131: 717–722.

  92. 92.

    , , , , . Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in insulin signaling and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism of small intestinal enterocytes. Nutrition 2012; 28: 1172–1179.

  93. 93.

    , , , , . Intestinal apolipoprotein B secretion is inhibited by the flavonoid quercetin: potential role of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Lipids 2002; 37: 647–652.

  94. 94.

    , , , . Fatty acid synthesis by human adipose tissue. Metabolism 1975; 24: 161–173.

  95. 95.

    , , , , , . Wide distribution of [3H](-)-epigallocatechin gallate, a cancer preventive tea polyphenol, in mouse tissue. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19: 1771–1776.

  96. 96.

    , , , , . Dietary green tea extract lowers plasma and hepatic triglycerides and decreases the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA and its responsive genes in fructose-fed, ovariectomized rats. J Nutr 2009; 139: 640–645.

  97. 97.

    , , . Effect of green tea polyphenols on the genes with atherosclerotic potential. Phytother Res 2004; 18: 177–179.

  98. 98.

    , , , , , . Antilipogenic effect of green tea extract in C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice. Phytother Res 2009; 23: 467–471.

  99. 99.

    , , , , . Beneficial effects of tea catechins on diet-induced obesity: stimulation of lipid catabolism in the liver. Int J Obesity 2002; 26: 1459–1464.

  100. 100.

    , , , , , et al. Effects of dietary procyanidins and tea polyphenols on adipose tissue mass and fatty acid metabolism in rats on a high fat diet. J Oleo Sci 2006; 55: 79–89.

  101. 101.

    , , , , . Green tea leaf extract improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in a fructose-fed insulin-resistant hamster model. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 104: 24–31.

  102. 102.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. Nutr Res 2009; 29: 784–793.

  103. 103.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish. Nutr Metab 2012; 9: 1–7.

  104. 104.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea polyphenols alleviate obesity in broiler chickens through the regulation of lipid-metabolism-related genes and transcription factor expression. J Agric Food Chem 2013; 61: 8565–8572.

  105. 105.

    , , , , , et al. Effects of a catechin-free fraction derived from green tea on gene expression of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in the mouse liver. Biomed Res 2012; 33: 9–13.

  106. 106.

    , , , . Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS One 2012; 7: e38332.

  107. 107.

    , . The effects of AICAR on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem Biophis Res Commun 2001; 286: 852–856.

  108. 108.

    , , , . Catechin-induced activation of the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 78: 78–84.

  109. 109.

    , , . Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase and liver kinase B1 is increased after a single oral dose of green tea extract to mice. Nutr Res 2012; 32: 985–990.

  110. 110.

    , , . Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Ann Nutr Metab 2009; 54: 151–157.

  111. 111.

    , , , , , . Effects of green tea on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and expression of PPARα and PPARγ and their target genes in obese dogs. Br J Nutr 2008; 99: 1208–1216.

  112. 112.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea extract attenuates hepatic steatosis by decreasing adipose lipogenesis and enhancing hepatic antioxidant defenses in ob/ob mice. J Nutr Biochem 2011; 22: 393–400.

  113. 113.

    , , , . Inhibitory effects of green tea catechin on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res 2009; 23: 1088–1091.

  114. 114.

    , , , , , . TEAVIGO (epigallocatechin gallate) supplementation prevents obesity in rodents by reducing adipose tissue mass. Ann Nutr Metab 2005; 49: 54–63.

  115. 115.

    , , , , , et al. Anti-obesity actions of green tea: possible involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors. Biofactors 2004; 22: 135–140.

  116. 116.

    , , , . Perilipin controls lipolysis by regulating the interactions of AB-hydrolase containing 5 (Abhd5) and adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl). J Biol Chem 2009; 284: 34538–34544.

  117. 117.

    , , , , , et al. Adipose-selective overexpression of ABHD5/CGI-58 does not increase lipolysis or protect against diet-induced obesity. J Lipid Res 2011; 52: 2032–2042.

  118. 118.

    , , , , , . Human frame shift mutations affecting the carboxyl terminus of perilipin increase lipolysis by failing to sequester the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) coactivator AB-hydrolase-containing 5 (ABHD5). J Biol Chem 2011; 286: 34998–35006.

  119. 119.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mediat Inflamm 2013; 2013: 1–8.

  120. 120.

    , . Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 2004; 84: 277–359.

  121. 121.

    , , , , , . Tea catechins enhance the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 in rat brown adipose tissue. J Nutr Biochem 2008; 19: 840–847.

  122. 122.

    , , , , . Green tea extract improves endurance capacity and increases muscle lipid oxidation in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2005; 288: R708–R715.

  123. 123.

    , , , . (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases the expression of genes related to fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice. Food Funct 2011; 2: 111–116.

  124. 124.

    , , , , , et al. Role of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in cell viability, lipogenesis, and retinol-binding protein 4 expression in adipocytes. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2010; 382: 303–310.

  125. 125.

    , , , , , et al. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake via the 67-kilodalton laminin receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways. Planta Med 2010; 76: 1694–1698.

  126. 126.

    , , . The anti-adipogenic effects of (-) epigallocatechin gallate are dependent on the WNT/β-catenin pathway. J Nutr Biochem 2013; 24: 1232–1240.

  127. 127.

    , , . Modulation of endocrine systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin gallate. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 980–987.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements Transformation Project (2013GB2C300220, the Ministry of Science and Technology of People's Republic of China), the Earmarked Fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System in Tea Industry (nycytx-26, the Ministry of Agriculture of People's Republic of China), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (Grant no. IRT1101) and international cooperation projects (2011DFG33280, the Ministry of Science and Technology of People's Republic of China)).

DISCLAIMER

The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Education, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, People's Republic of China

    • J Huang
    • , Y Wang
    • , Z Xie
    • , Y Zhou
    • , Y Zhang
    •  & X Wan

Authors

  1. Search for J Huang in:

  2. Search for Y Wang in:

  3. Search for Z Xie in:

  4. Search for Y Zhou in:

  5. Search for Y Zhang in:

  6. Search for X Wan in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to X Wan.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2014.143

Further reading