Table 1 Pre- to post-holiday season variables and changes in measured variables

From: Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure

Variable All Participants Males Females
  Visit 1 Visit 2 Change Visit 1 Visit 2 Change Visit 1 Visit 2 Change
Age (years) 33.5±1.1 33.5±1.1   32.3±1.8    34.0±1.4   
Sex (%, n)     32%, 48    68%, 100   
Body weight (kg) 71.7±1.4 72.5±1.4 0.78±0.1a 81.1±2.1b 82.1±2.2 0.96±0.17a 67.2±1.6 67.9±1.6 0.69±0.13a
Height (cm) 168.8±0.7    177.6±1.1    165.2±0.6   
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1±0.5 25.4±0.5 0.3±0.0a 25.7±0.6 26.0±0.6 0.3±0.1a 24.9±0.6 25.1±0.6 0.3±0.1a
<25 (n, %) 84, 57% 83, 56%   21, 44% 19, 40%   63, 63% 62, 62%  
25–29.9 (n, %) 39, 26% 39, 26%   19, 40% 21, 44%   20, 20% 21, 21%  
30 (n, %) 25, 17% 26, 18%   8, 16% 8, 16%   17, 17% 17, 17%  
Body fat (%) 25.2±0.8 25.7±0.9 0.5±0.2a 17.3±1.1b 18.0±1.2 0.8±0.3a 29.0±0.9 29.4±1.0 0.4±0.2
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 123.0±1.4 125.4±1.4 2.3±1.2a 129.1±1.7b 132.1±2.4 3.0±1.9 120.1±1.8 122.1±1.6 2.0±1.5
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 76.5±1.0 78.3±0.9 1.8±0.8a 78.8±1.6 80.8±1.7 2.0±1.4 75.3±1.2 77.1±1.1 1.8±1.0a
Resting heart rate (b.p.m.) 70.5±1.0 72.8±1.1 2.3±1.0a 68.8±1.8 70.3±2.0 1.6±2.1 71.4±1.2 74.1±1.2 2.7±1.0a
Non-exercisers (n, %) 71, 48%    23, 32%    48, 68%   
Exercisers (n, %) 78, 52%    25, 32%    52, 68%   
  1. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
  2. Values presented as means±s.e.
  3. Changes in measured variables from pre- to post-holiday season were tested using paired Student’s t-tests.
  4. aIndicates significant change from pre-to post-holiday season of P<0.05.
  5. bIndicates significant difference between males and females at baseline of P<0.05.