Table 2: Anthropometric measurements (A), blood biochemistries (B) and dietary intakes (C) at baseline and week-4 of study

From: Appetitive, dietary and health effects of almonds consumed with meals or as snacks: a randomized, controlled trial

(A) BaselineWeek-4Repeated measures ANOVA (Greenhouse–Geisser)a
  Mean±s.d.Mean± s.d.Time, PGroup, PTimeb Group, P
Body weight, kg
 CLn=2777.2±16.877.2±17.2   
 BFn=2880.5±15.080.7±14.8   
 MSn=2883.2±21.183.2±21.30.023b0.5100.357
 LNn=2684.8±13.785.1±13.4   
 ASn=2881.8±14.681.9±15.8   
       
BMI, kg/m2
 CLn=2727.0±4.426.9±4.4   
 BFn=2828.2±4.828.3±4.7   
 MSn=2828.7±5.028.7±5.10.011b0.5470.627
 LNn=2629.0±3.929.1±3.9   
 ASn=2828.2±5.228.3±5.3   
       
Waist, cm
 CLn=2781.9±12.482.3±12.4   
 BFn=2885.3±12.285.0±12.4   
 MSn=2885.6±11.485.8±11.6<0.001b0.5850.010b
 LNn=2687.0±9.987.2±9.7   
 ASn=2886.2±11.286.0±11.0   
       
Body fat mass, kg
 CLn=2726.3±10.526.2±10.4   
 BFn=2828.1±11.228.0±11.2   
 MSn=2828.1±10.228.1±10.90.1510.9880.922
 LNn=2628.5±9.228.2±9.3   
 ASn=2827.3±10.727.0±11.2   
       
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg
 CLn=27121.2±11.5117.8±12.5   
 BFn=28123.9±12.5121.5±14.9   
 MSn=28122.7±11.9122.6±11.00.023b0.047b0.481
 LNn=26128.4±14.8128.4±10.9   
 ASn=28127.7±11.6124.1±10.2   
       
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg
 CLn=2774.6±8.072.2±9.3   
 BFn=2877.1±10.376.3±11.0   
 MSn=2876.1±9.174.3±8.50.020b0.4380.713
 LNn=2678.7±11.976.6±11.7   
 ASn=2876.8±7.976.8±6.7   
(B) BaselineWeek-4Repeated measures ANOVA (Greenhouse–Geisser)a
  Mean± s.d.Mean± s.d.Time, PGroup, PTimeb Group, P
Fasting serum glucose, mg/dl
 CLn=2792.3±9.792.2±10.0   
 BFn=2889.0±7.891.3±0.9   
 MSn=2893.8±18.490.1±9.10.003b0.8770.733 (adj. BMI 0.084)
 LNn=2692.6±9.492.5±9.0   
 ASn=2891.4±8.991.9±11.5   
       
Fasting serum triacylglycerol, mg/dl
 CLn=2793.3±44.498.3±50.2   
 BFn=2889.7±50.3103.3±58.7   
 MSn=2892.6±51.690.4±41.20.001b0.8490.260 (adj. BMI 0.855)
 LNn=2699.5±68.592.7±52.6   
 ASn=28112.2±43.795.6±37.0   
       
Fasting serum total cholesterol, mg/dl
 CLn=27151.9±25.3147.2±24.0   
 BFn=28152.3±23.2153.4±26.9   
 MSn=28151.1±34.7153.0±36.2<0.001b0.8640.530 (adj. BMI 0.822)
 LNn=26154.1±32.4149.0±26.4   
 ASn=28157.5±31.4151.8±33.0   
Fasting serum LDL cholesterol, mg/dl
 CLn=2789.1±22.683.9±21.7   
 BFn=2895.7±26.592.6±23.6   
 MSn=2893.5±29.395.9±29.7<0.001b0.7260.636 (adj. BMI 0.981)
 LNn=2693.0±26.089.1±24.9   
 ASn=2897.0±28.592.0±28.3   
       
Fasting serum HDL cholesterol, mg/dl
 CLn=2752.7±11.653.0±12.3   
 BFn=2848.3±14.849.6±18.3   
 MSn=2847.7±9.447.3±9.2<0.001b0.5020.178 (adj. BMI 0.376)
 LNn=2651.0±15.752.0±14.7   
 ASn=2847.9±10.746.9±10.4   
       
Fasting serum insulin, μU/ml
 CLn=2710.5±5.09.4±5.7   
 BFn=289.0±5.711.1±11.3   
 MSn=2813.4±12.910.7±6.40.024b0.1760.309 (adj. BMI 0.962)
 LNn=2613.2±5.713.5±8.1   
 ASn=2811.2±6.513.3±8.7   
       
Fasting plasma α-tocopherol, mg/dl
 CLn=276.39±1.626.26±1.45   
 BFn=286.65±1.767.05±1.82   
 MSn=285.90±1.336.15±1.360.1810.5410.333
 LNn=266.66±2.996.59±2.74   
 ASn=286.43±2.026.59±1.55   
(C) BaselineWeek-4Repeated measures ANOVA (Greenhouse-Geisser)a
  Mean±s.d.Mean±s.d.Time, PGroup, PTimeb Group, P
Energy intake, kcal/day
 CLn=271890±5391719±661   
 BFn=282026±7541969±667   
 MSn=282223±7952216±7490.5730.035b0.806
 LNn=262036±7182082±719   
 ASn=281948±7481878±685   
       
Fat intake, g/day
 CLn=2772.8±27.369.0±42.4   
 BFn=2882.8±45.490.0±42.0   
 MSn=2884.1±36.196.4±34.90.0570.033b0.583
 LNn=2682.3±38.988.2±31.5   
 ASn=2873.3±37.185.0±30.2   
       
Carbohydrate intake, g/day
 CLn=27228.5±90.6216.0±84.9   
 BFn=28251.9±90.6220.6±69.5   
 MSn=28285.0±114.1259.0±108.80.0620.0570.710
 LNn=26244.7±88.2242.3±113.9   
 ASn=28239.8±105.6204.4±101.6   
       
Protein intake, g/day
 CLn=2776.6±34.963.9±26.4   
 BFn=2876.9±33.776.1±30.6   
 MSn=2879.3±33.688.9±42.70.7550.1230.373
 LNn=2684.8±31.484.1±26.7   
 ASn=2875.7±42.873.9±32.6   
       
Alcohol intake, g/day
 CLn=276.3±23.91.4±5.3   
 BFn=281.2±4.11.9±10.3   
 MSn=286.7±22.61.3±5.60.2400.7620.334
 LNn=260.6±2.72.4±7.1   
 ASn=281.8±4.91.0±5.2   
Dietary cholesterol (mg/day)
 CLn=27259±208227±299   
 BFn=28266±213228±230   
 MSn=28259±209286±2500.4370.7050.890
 LNn=26283±217256±160   
 ASn=28276±198231±174   
       
Dietary saturated fat, g/day
 CLn=2726.4±14.823.0±16.3   
 BFn=2831.1±21.325.7±15.3   
 MSn=2829.5±15.227.3±14.50.0660.5610.990
 LNn=2627.2±12.723.5±10.1   
 ASn=2827.2±18.224.7±12.3   
       
Dietary monounsaturated fat, g/day
 CLn=2724.9±9.922.5±14.5   
 BFn=2828.4±16.036.3±13.2   
 MSn=2828.7±14.039.0±11.6<0.001b<0.001b0.036b
 LNn=2629.0±15.637.3±12.1   
 ASn=2827.3±14.535.8±12.7   
       
Dietary polyunsaturated fat, g/day
 CLn=2715.3±7.218.0±12.5   
 BFn=2816.2±8.521.3±13.6   
 MSn=2819.1±11.322.8±11.20.008b0.0640.323
 LNn=2619.9±13.020.7±10.9   
 ASn=2817.6±9.117.8±7.9   
       
Dietary fiber, g/d
 CLn=2714.7±8.318.4±11.5   
 BFn=2821.2±12.619.7±8.3   
 MSn=2821.2±11.923.4±12.20.1280.010b0.706
 LNn=2617.0±6.019.0±9.0   
 ASn=2816.7±7.915.9±6.2   
       
Dietary α-tocopherol, mg/day
 CLn=2713.9±24.19.1±5.5<0.001b<0.001b<0.001b
 BFn=2810.2±6.717.6±3.4   
 MSn=2812.3±8.124.4±13.2   
 LNn=2611.2±8.518.8±6.0   
 ASn=2811.4±8.517.6±6.6   
  1. Abbreviations: AS, afternoon snack; BF, breakfast; BMI, body mass index; CL, control; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LN, lunch; MS, morning snack.
  2. aGeneral linear model for repeated measures (RMANOVA) with Greenhouse–Geisser correction for data with the Mauchly’s test of Sphericity P<0.05.
  3. bStatistical significance, P<0.05.