Table 1 Sex-specific age-adjusted mean values or prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors according to quintiles of total meat consumptiona

From: Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women

Quintile of total meat consumption b Men P for trendc Women P for trendc
  Q1 (low) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 (high)   Q1 (low) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 (high)  
Men
 Meat consumption, median (g/day) 10.4 23.1 33.9 46.6 77.6   7.5 18.7 27.1 37.1 59.9  
 Range (g/day) (0.7–17.4) (17.4–28.7) (28.7–39.5) (39.5–55.2) (55.2–277.1)   (0.4–13.9) (13.9–23.1) (23.1–31.5) (31.5–43.7) (43.7–221.6)  
 Meat consumption (times/day) 0.21 0.49 0.71 0.95 1.52   0.20 0.53 0.74 1.00 1.50  
 Participants at risk (n) 4093 4093 4094 4093 4093   6243 6244 6243 6244 6243  
 Age (years) 56.6 55.7 55.3 55.0 55.8 0.006 58.8 56.7 55.5 55.0 54.3 <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 22.8 22.7 22.6 22.5 <0.001 23.0 22.9 22.9 22.8 22.8 <0.001
 Smoker (%) 56.5 54.0 53.4 52.2 54.5 0.078 6.1 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.7 0.003
 Ethanol intake (g/day) 37.1 35.4 34.1 32.8 31.0 <0.001 12.8 11.6 9.6 9.0 8.0 <0.001
 Walking time 30 min or more/day (%) 67.4 70.3 70.3 69.2 68.7 0.720 70.6 73.0 73.2 73.2 71.2 0.850
 Sports time 1 h or more/week (%) 27.5 31.9 32.6 33.1 32.4 <0.001 19.6 22.1 25.0 24.8 24.8 <0.001
 Sleep duration (h/day) 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 0.020 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 0.046
 College or higher education (%) 18.2 18.1 19.2 18.0 19.3 0.256 8.5 9.6 11.5 11.1 11.5 <0.001
 High perceived mental stress (%) 25.0 24.5 23.4 24.7 26.7 0.033 20.7 20.5 20.7 20.8 20.9 0.597
 History of hypertension (%) 18.8 18.5 17.2 17.0 16.1 <0.001 20.2 19.7 18.8 18.4 17.6 <0.001
 History of diabetes (%) 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.9 0.177 3.1 3.1 2.7 3.2 3.6 0.083
 Menopause (%) 62.6 65.4 64.3 63.1 61.2 <0.001
 Rice intake (g/day)d 571.1 539.6 515.1 490.6 441.5 <0.001 467.8 433.8 415.0 389.7 352.5 <0.001
 Fish and fish products intake (g/day)d 44.4 46.4 48.8 51.0 57.4 <0.001 48.4 48.0 48.7 50.5 54.2 <0.001
 Vegetables intake (g/day)d 80.3 88.2 93.5 98.9 110.0 <0.001 101.3 102.7 105.5 110.1 117.5 <0.001
 Fruits intake (g/day)d 107.5 116.3 123.7 125.2 135.7 <0.001 142.4 146.9 149.8 153.8 155.0 <0.001
 Energy intake (kcal/day) 1731 1811 1795 1766 1722 <0.001 1395 1487 1452 1430 1367 <0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)e 134.7 133.5 133.5 133.0 132.3 <0.001 131.1 130.4 130.0 130.1 129.7 <0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)e 81.0 80.0 80.1 80.1 79.3 <0.001 77.0 77.0 76.9 77.0 76.8 0.211
 Subsamples with serum chemistry (n) 1133 1226 1186 1126 1129   2092 2181 2285 2283 2450  
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.90 4.90 4.94 4.87 4.92 0.837 5.27 5.30 5.28 5.27 5.25 0.200
  1. aMeat consumption was estimated as the frequency scores and portion size of five meat items (beef, pork, poultry, liver and processed meat).
  2. bEnergy adjusted quintiles by residual method.
  3. cOn the basis of the tests for trend across quintiles of meat consumption by assigning the median value of each quintile.
  4. dFood intakes were adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method.
  5. eSystolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were obtained at baseline survey by self-reported.