Table 1 Characteristics of the selected prospective cohort studies on red and processed meat intake and stroke risk

From: Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Author, year (location) Study name Duration Participants No. of cases Range of intake
RR (95% CI)
Adjustment
Sauvaget, 2003 (Japan) Life Span Study(LSS) 16 37 130 men and women aged 56 years 1462 (fatal) Red meat: never vs almost daily;
RR: 1.01 (0.73–1.38)
Processed meat: never vs almost daily;
RR: 0.90 (0.61–1.33)
Age, sex, city, radiation dose, BMI, smoking, alcohol, education and history of diabetes or hypertension
Larsson, 2010 (Sweden) Swedish Mammography Cohort 10.4 34 670 women aged 49–83 years 1680 (total)
1310 IS,
154 ICH and
79 SAH
Total meat: <36.5 vs 80.0 g per day;
RR: 1.91 (1.00–1.41)
Red meat: <16.5 vs 4.8 g per day;
RR: 1.07 (0.91–1.23)
Processed meat: <12.1 vs 41.3 g per day;
RR: 1.18 (1.00–1.38)
Age, smoking, education, BMI, total physical activity, history of diabetes or hypertension, aspirin use, family history of MI and intake of total energy, alcohol, coffee, fish, fruits and vegetables
Larsson, 2011 (Sweden) The Cohort of Swedish Men 10.1 40 291 men aged 45–79 years 2409 (total)
1849 IS,
350 HS
Total meat: <62.5 vs 136.2 g per day;
RR: 1.15 (1.00–1.33)
Red meat: <33.5 vs 83.1 g per day;
RR: 1.07 (0.93–1.24)
Processed meat: <20.1 vs 57.1 g per day
RR: 1.23 (1.07–1.40)
Age, smoking, education, BMI, total physical activity, history of diabetes or hypertension, aspirin use, family history of MI and intake of total energy, alcohol, coffee, fish, fruits and vegetables
Bernstein, 2012 (USA) Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) 26 84 010 women aged 30–55 years 2663 (total),
1383 IS,
235ICH and
240 SAH
Total meat: 0.44 vs 1.92 servings per day;
RR: 1.12 (0.94–1.33)
Red meat: 0.28 vs 1.08 servings per day;
RR: 1.16 (0.99–1.37)
Processed meat: 0.05 vs 0.64 servings per day;
RR: 1.03 (0.89–1.19)
Age, time period, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, parental history of early MI, menopausal status (including hormone replacement), multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, aspirin use a, total energy, cereal fiber, alcohol, trans-fat, fruit and vegetables, other protein sources, and history of MI, coronary artery bypass surgery or percutanteous coronary intervention, angina, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia
Bernstein, 2012 (USA) Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HFPS) 22 43 150 men aged 40–75 years 1379 (total),
829 IS,
165 ICH and
53 SAH
Total meat: 0.3 vs 2.29 servings per day;
RR: 1.25 (1–1.58)
Red meat: 0.14 vs 1.11 servings per day;
RR: 1.10 (0.87–1.38)
Processed meat: 0.03 vs 0.71 servings per day;
RR: 1.23 (1.00–1.51)
Age, time period, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, parental history of early MI, multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, aspirin use a, total energy, cereal fiber, alcohol, trans-fat, fruit and vegetables, other protein sources, and history of MI, coronary artery bypass surgery orpercutanteous coronary intervention, angina, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HS, hemorrhagic stroke; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhagic; IS, ischemic stroke; MI, myocardial infarction; RR, relative risk; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhagic.