He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR et al. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke 2004; 35: 1538–1542.
Bouzan C, Cohen JT, Connor WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Gray GM, Konig A et al. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and stroke risk. Am J Prev Med 2005; 29: 347–352.
Larsson SC, Orsini N. Fish consumption and the risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis. Stroke 2011; 42: 3621–3623.
Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA 2001; 285: 304–312.
He K, Rimm EB, Merchant A, Rosner BA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC et al. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men. JAMA 2002; 288: 3130–3136.
Folsom AR, Demissie Z. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160: 1005–1010.
Mozaffarian D, Longstreth WT, Lemaitre RN, Manolio TA, Kuller LH, Burke GL et al. Fish consumption and stroke risk in elderly individuals: the cardiovascular health study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 200–206.
Nakamura Y, Ueshima H, Okamura T, Kadowaki T, Hayakawa T, Kita Y et al. Association between fish consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80, 1980-99. Am J Med 2005; 118: 239–245.
Myint PK, Welch AA, Bingham SA, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, Day NE et al. Habitual fish consumption and risk of incident stroke: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Public Health Nutr 2006; 9: 882–888.
Yamagishi K, Iso H, Date C, Fukui M, Wakai K, Kikuchi S et al. Fish, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a nationwide community-based cohort of Japanese men and women the JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52: 988–996.
Montonen J, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, Knekt P. Fish consumption and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Br J Nutr 2009; 102: 750–756.
Larsson SC, Virtamo J, Wolk A. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93: 487–493.
de Goede J, Verschuren WM, Boer JM, Kromhout D, Geleijnse JM. Gender-specific associations of marine n-3 fatty acids and fish consumption with 10-year incidence of stroke. PLoS One 2012; 7: e33866.
Keli SO, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Fish consumption and risk of stroke. The Zutphen Study. Stroke 1994; 25: 328–332.
Morris MC, Manson JE, Rosner B, Buring JE, Willett WC, Hennekens CH. Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in the physicians’ health study: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 166–175.
Gillum RF, Mussolino ME, Madans JH. The relationship between fish consumption and stroke incidence. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 537–542.
Orencia AJ, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Fish consumption and stroke in men. 30-year findings of the Chicago Western Electric Study. Stroke 1996; 27: 204–209.
Yuan JM, Ross RK, Gao YT, Yu MC. Fish and shellfish consumption in relation to death from myocardial infarction among men in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 154: 809–816.
Sauvaget C, Nagano J, Allen N, Grant EJ, Beral V. Intake of animal products and stroke mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study. Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32: 536–543.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986; 7: 177–188.
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 629–634.
He K. Fish, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease--eat fish or take fish oil supplement? Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 52: 95–114.
Caicoya M. Fish consumption and stroke: a community case-control study in Asturias, Spain. Neuroepidemiology 2002; 21: 107–114.
Wennberg M, Bergdahl IA, Stegmayr B, Hallmans G, Lundh T, Skerfving S et al. Fish intake, mercury, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of stroke in northern Sweden. Br J Nutr 2007; 98: 1038–1045.
Calder PC. n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004; 107: 1–11.
von Schacky C, Fischer S, Weber PC. Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. J Clin Invest 1985; 76: 1626–1631.
Leaf A, Weber PC. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 549–557.
Thies F, Garry JM, Yaqoob P, Rerkasem K, Williams J, Shearman CP et al. Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 477–485.
Nestel PJ. Effects of N-3 fatty acids on lipid metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 1990; 10: 149–167.
Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993; 88: 523–533.
Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Ness AR, Moore HJ et al. Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ 2006; 332: 752–760.
Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, Appel LJ, Brass LM, Bushnell CD et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke 2006; 37: 1583–1633.
Lee CD, Folsom AR, Blair SN. Physical activity and stroke risk: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2003; 34: 2475–2481.
Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Silventoinen K, Sarti C, Mannisto S, Jousilahti P. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio on the risk of total and type-specific stroke. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 1420–1427.
Galimanis A, Mono ML, Arnold M, Nedeltchev K, Mattle HP. Lifestyle and stroke risk: a review. Curr Opin Neurol 2009; 22: 60–68.