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Effect of walnut-enriched meat on the relationship between VCAM, ICAM, and LTB4 levels and PON-1 activity in ApoA4 360 and PON-1 allele carriers at increased cardiovascular risk



Cardiovascular risk depends largely on paraoxonase (PON-1) and apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) gene polymorphisms. To compare the effects of consumption of walnut-enriched meat versus low-fat meat (LM) on selected soluble adhesion molecules and leukotrienes (LTB4).


In all 22 subjects at increased cardiovascular risk were taken. It is a non-blinded, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Two 5-week experimental periods separated by 4–6 week wash-out interval. Participants consumed walnut-enriched meat during one period and LM during the other. Diet characteristics, HDLc, Apo A1, paraoxonase, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and LTB4 were analysed. PON-1 55, PON-1 192 and APOA4 360 polymorphism effects were also assessed.


Individuals consuming walnut-enriched meat displayed higher paraoxonase activity (P<0.001), lower levels of sICAM and aVCAM (P=0.046, P=0.012, respectively) and leukotriene B4 (P=0.044), and lower paraoxonase-1/HDLc and paraoxonase-1/Apo A1 ratios (both, P<0.001) than those consuming LM. Paraoxonase levels correlated negatively with those of sICAM (r=−0.471, P<0.01). Significant decreases (at least P<0.05) were observed in sICAM concentrations in PON-1 55LM+MM, PON-1 QQ192 and APOA4-2 carriers while decreases in sVCAM in QR+RR and APOA4-1 carriers were observed. Paraoxonase-1/HDLc and paraoxonase-1/Apo A1 ratios were significantly influenced by paraoxonase polymorphisms.


Walnut-enriched meat appears as a functional meat as consumed in the framework of a mix diet lowered the concentration of some selected inflammatory chemoattractant biomarkers. This effect was largely influenced by PON-1 and Apo A4-360 polymorphisms.

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We thank the Universidad Complutense of Madrid for the predoctoral fellowship of Meritxell Nus. This study was sponsored by Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Project AGL 2001-2398-C03 and AGL 2005-07204-C02-01/ALI and Consolider-Ingenio 2010, reference CSD2007-00016.

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Correspondence to F J Sánchez-Muniz.

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Guarantor: FJ Sánchez-Muniz.Contributors: All authors have significantly contributed to the paper and agree with the present version of the manuscript. FJ S-M. has contributed to the study design, volunteers’ selection, data discussion and writing of the paper. JB, SB and AC have contributed to the data acquisition and analysis and writing of the paper. MN and JL have contributed to the volunteers’ selection, sample genotyping and critical reading of the paper. DC and MG have contributed to the DNA isolation, sample genotyping and critical reading of the paper. The study was performed according to the ethical bases of the Helsinki Declaration. Volunteers provided informed consent previous to the start of the study.

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Canales, A., Sánchez-Muniz, F., Bastida, S. et al. Effect of walnut-enriched meat on the relationship between VCAM, ICAM, and LTB4 levels and PON-1 activity in ApoA4 360 and PON-1 allele carriers at increased cardiovascular risk. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 703–710 (2011).

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