Table 3 Plasma concentrations of the eight inflammatory and atherogenesis-related biomarkers at 0 h and changes at 3 h in 12 subjects: within group differencesa

From: Circulating inflammatory and atherogenic biomarkers are not increased following single meals of dairy foods

Cytokine Butter Cream Cheese Yoghurt Low fat
  Median/mean % Changeb Median/mean % Changeb Median/mean % Changeb Median/mean % Changeb Median/mean % Changeb
MCP-1 (pg/ml)c 298 (133–547) −15 331 (260–409) −25* 363 (239–445) −19 350 (305–392) −6 312 (278–461) −13
MIP-1α (pg/ml)c 34 (12–67) −15 101 (31–166) −14* 62 (23–156) −6 57 (23–115) −3 77 (25–140) −6
sICAM-1 (ng/ml)d 121 (22) −3 140 (30) −4 137 (33) 0 152 (31) 2 149 (38) −2
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)c 1042 (973–1306) −4 1226 (1102–1365) −6* 1218 (1051–1393) −4 1255 (1185–1440) −3 1246 (1076–1369) −3
IL-6 (pg/ml)c 16 (9–21) −36** 16 (9–26) −8* 23 (16–29) −7 14 (11–21) −10 22 (13–34) −33**
IL-1β (pg/ml)d 3.1 (1.7) −42** 3.3 (1.8) −27* 4.6 (2.5) −12 2.4 (1.3) −8 3.7 (2.2) −31*
TNF-α (pg/ml)d 19 (7) −33** 18 (6) −26** 23 (10) −16 16 (7) −12 18 (8) −27*
hsCRP (mg/L)c 1.4 (0.8–2.0) −9** 2.0 (1.0–2.9) −8* 1.4 (0.8–2.7) −7 1.3 (1.0–2.3) −5 1.4 (0.8–2.3) −11
  1. Abbreviations: hsCRP, high-sensitive C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; sICAM, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; sVCAM, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.
  2. aSubject 13, the outlier has been omitted.
  3. b% Change in the median or mean at 3 h, *P<0.05, **P<0.01.
  4. cNon-normal distribution, expressed as median (interquartile range).
  5. dNormal distribution, expressed as mean (s.d.).
  6. Note that no significant differences were observed for between groups.