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Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects

Abstract

Background/Objective:

The sweet-taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) is expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Application of sucralose (a non-calorific, non-metabolisable sweetener) to L-cells in vitro stimulates glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, an effect that is inhibited with co-administration of a T1r2+T1r3 inhibitor. We conducted a randomised, single-blinded, crossover study in eight healthy subjects to investigate whether oral ingestion of sucralose could stimulate L-cell-derived GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) release in vivo.

Methods:

Fasted subjects were studied on 4 study days in random order. Subjects consumed 50 ml of either water, sucralose (0.083% w/v), a non-sweet, glucose-polymer matched for sweetness with sucralose addition (50% w/v maltodextrin+0.083% sucralose) or a modified sham-feeding protocol (MSF=oral stimulation) of sucralose (0.083% w/v). Appetite ratings and plasma GLP-1, PYY, insulin and glucose were measured at regular time points for 120 min. At 120 min, energy intake at a buffet meal was measured.

Results:

Sucralose ingestion did not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY. MSF of sucralose did not elicit a cephalic phase response for insulin or GLP-1. Maltodextrin ingestion significantly increased insulin and glucose compared with water (P<0.001). Appetite ratings and energy intake were similar for all groups.

Conclusions:

At this dose, oral ingestion of sucralose does not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY concentrations and hence, does not reduce appetite in healthy subjects. Oral stimulation with sucralose had no effect on GLP-1, insulin or appetite.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Mandy Donaldson and John Meek for glucose and insulin assays, the Sir John McMichael research centre for Clinical Investigation and Research, Hammersmith Hospital and the volunteers. VP is funded through a European Union framework 6 Marie Curie fellowship (NuSISCO). NMM is funded by a HEFCE Clinical Senior Lecturer Award. This research is funded by program grants from the MRC (G7811974) and Wellcome Trust (072643/Z/03/Z) and by an EU FP6 Integrated Project Grant LSHM-CT-2003-503041. We are also grateful for support from the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre funding scheme. We thank Tate and Lyle for the provision of sucralose.

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Correspondence to S R Bloom.

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Contributors: HEF and VP designed the experiment, collected and analysed data and wrote the manuscript. NMM helped with the writing of the manuscript. MS contributed to the data analysis. MAG, GSF and SRB provided significant advice.

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Ford, H., Peters, V., Martin, N. et al. Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 508–513 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2010.291

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Keywords

  • obesity
  • sucralose
  • sweetener
  • gut hormone
  • appetite

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