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Discretionary addition of vitamins and minerals to foods: implications for healthy eating



Health Canada proposes to allow manufacturers to add vitamins and minerals to a wide variety of foods at their discretion, a practice that has long been permitted in the United States and Europe. With Health Canada's proposed exclusion of staple and standardized foods from discretionary fortification, questions arise about the nutritional quality of the foods that remain eligible for fortification. To better understand the implications of this policy for healthy eating, this study examined the contribution of foods eligible to be fortified to the dietary quality of Canadians.


Using 24-h dietary recall data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, the relationship between intake of fortifiable foods and indicators of dietary quality was assessed.


The mean percentage contribution of fortifiable foods to usual energy intake ranged from 19% among men over the age of 70 years to 36% for girls aged 14–18 years. Fortifiable food (as a percentage of total energy) was inversely associated with intake of vegetables and fruit, meat and alternatives, milk products, fiber, vitamins A, B6, B12 and D, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Fortifiable food was positively associated with dietary energy density, total energy intake and grain products. Few relationships were found for folate, vitamin C, iron, calcium, sodium and saturated fat.


Consumption of foods slated for discretionary fortification is associated with lower nutrient intakes and suboptimal food intake patterns. Insofar as adding nutrients to these foods reinforces their consumption, discretionary fortification might function to discourage healthier eating patterns.

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We gratefully acknowledge Dr George Beaton for his invaluable contributions to this paper. Jocelyn E Sacco holds a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Fellowship in Public Health Policy, and a CIHR Canada Graduate Scholarship Doctoral Award.

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Correspondence to V Tarasuk.

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Sacco, J., Tarasuk, V. Discretionary addition of vitamins and minerals to foods: implications for healthy eating. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 313–320 (2011).

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  • food fortification
  • dietary quality
  • vitamins
  • minerals


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